This is a free 17 video course on linear algebra by famed you-tube celebrity and amazing educator ( With quaky sense of humor) “Professor Dave”.If you want an easy way to study and really dominate the subject, try this. ;).
Linear algebra is central to almost all areas of mathematics. For instance, linear algebra is fundamental in modern presentations of geometry, including for defining basic objects such as lines, planes and rotations. Also, functional analysis may be basically viewed as the application of linear algebra to spaces of functions. Linear algebra is also used in most sciences and engineering areas, because it allows modeling many natural phenomena, and efficiently computing with such models. For nonlinear systems, which cannot be modeled with linear algebra, linear algebra is often used as a first-order approximation.” Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linear_algebra
You need to really grasp Algebra, this amazing free 48 video course on the matter is superb. Made easy and fun by famed youtube professor “Dave”, if you go through this course, your algebra classes will finally make sense.
Mathematicians seek and use patterns to formulate new conjectures; they resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof. When mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry.
Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, finance, and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics and game theory. Mathematicians engage in pure mathematics (mathematics for its own sake) without having any application in mind, but practical applications for what began as pure mathematics are often discovered later.
Physicists like math, usually. People who hate math just don’t understand it. But like that weird ethnic food you’re scared of trying, or that odd kid in class that doesn’t say much, if you come to understand something it’s not so scary. In fact, if we can learn enough about math, we will come to love it, because there is so much we can do with it. Watch this series to supplement your math classes, or just to learn enough math that you can become friends. It starts out super easy so don’t be afraid! Okay, let’s go! “
Addition has several important properties. It is commutative, meaning that order does not matter, and it is associative, meaning that when one adds more than two numbers, the order in which addition is performed does not matter (see Summation). Repeated addition of 1 is the same as counting; addition of 0 does not change a number. Addition also obeys predictable rules concerning related operations such as subtraction and multiplication.
Performing addition is one of the simplest numerical tasks. Addition of very small numbers is accessible to toddlers; the most basic task, 1 + 1, can be performed by infants as young as five months and even some members of other animal species. In primary education, students are taught to add numbers in the decimal system, starting with single digits and progressively tackling more difficult problems. Mechanical aids range from the ancient abacus to the modern computer, where research on the most efficient implementations of addition continues to this day.
Subtraction is an arithmetic operation that represents the operation of removing objects from a collection. The result of a subtraction is called a difference. Subtraction is signified by the minus sign (−). For example, in the adjacent picture, there are 5 − 2 apples—meaning 5 apples with 2 taken away, which is a total of 3 apples. Therefore, the difference of 5 and 2 is 3, that is, 5 − 2 = 3. Subtraction represents removing or decreasing physical and abstract quantities using different kinds of objects including negative numbers, fractions, irrational numbers, vectors, decimals, functions, and matrices.
Subtraction follows several important patterns. It is anticommutative, meaning that changing the order changes the sign of the answer. It is also not associative, meaning that when one subtracts more than two numbers, the order in which subtraction is performed matters. Because 0 is the additive identity, subtraction of it does not change a number. Subtraction also obeys predictable rules concerning related operations such as addition and multiplication. All of these rules can be proven, starting with the subtraction of integers and generalizing up through the real numbers and beyond. General binary operations that continue these patterns are studied in abstract algebra.
Performing subtraction is one of the simplest numerical tasks. Subtraction of very small numbers is accessible to young children. In primary education, students are taught to subtract numbers in the decimal system, starting with single digits and progressively tackling more difficult problems.
In advanced algebra and in computer algebra, an expression involving subtraction like A − B is generally treated as a shorthand notation for the addition A + (−B). Thus, A − B contains two terms, namely A and −B. This allows an easier use of associativity and commutativity.
From the very little one can gather from a 3 hour conversation, Annie Jacobsen is an awesome Journalist with a crazy “professional” obsession with the dark and untold, while also an almost morbid fascination with truth. Obviously this is not uncommon and this is her books are so tempting.
Perhaps, before we go to the books, you might enjoy Joe Rogan Experience #1299 – Annie Jacobsen , Joe Rogan who has a superb podcast.
Annie Jacobesen BIO
ANNIE JACOBSEN is a former Los Angeles Times journalist, bestselling author, and 2016 Pulitzer Prize finalist in history. Her nonfiction books are AREA 51, OPERATION PAPERCLIP, THE PENTAGON’S BRAIN, and PHENOMENA. She also writes television.
Jacobsen went to Princeton University where she was taught writing by Joyce Carol Oates and Paul Auster, studied Greek, and served as Captain of the Princeton Women’s Varsity Ice Hockey Team. She lives in Los Angeles with her husband Kevin and their two sons.
The layers of Earth are a great mystery as we really don´t have much evidence of whats really down there. So, this small documentary that “documents” a simulated trip to the core of the planet is a great way to get a feel for this very interesting theory on whats at the core of our planet.
Layers based on chemical composition
During Earth’s early formation, the planet underwent a period of differentiation that allowed the heaviest elements to sink to the center and lighter ones to rise to the surface. Earth’s internal layering can be defined by this resulting chemical composition. The three main layers of Earth include the crust (1 percent of Earth’s volume), the mantle (84 percent), and the core (inner and outer combined, 15 percent). 
The solid crust is the outermost and thinnest layer of our planet. The crust averages 25 miles (40 kilometers) in thickness and is divided in to fifteen major tectonic plates that are rigid in the center and have geologic activity at the boundaries, such as earthquakes and volcanism.
The most abundant elements in the Earth’s crust include (listed here by weight percent) oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, and calcium. These elements combine to form the most abundant minerals in the Earth’s crust, members of the silicate family – plagioclase and alkali feldspars, quartz, pyroxenes, amphiboles, micas, and clay minerals.
All three rock types (igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic) can be found in Earth’s crust. Crustal material is classified as oceanic crust or continental crust. Oceanic crust underlies our ocean basins, is thin, approximately 4 miles (7 kilometers) in thickness, and is composed of dense rocks, primarily the igneous rock basalt. Continental crust is thicker, ranging from 6 to 47 miles (10 to 75 kilometers), and has a high abundance of the less dense igneous rock granite. The oldest rocks on our planet are part of the continental crust and date back approximately 4 billion years in age. Ocean crust is constantly recycled through our planet’s system of plate tectonics and only dates back to approximately 200 million years ago.
The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) has drilled deep in to the ocean crust (4,644 feet below the seafloor) but has not yet broken through to the next layer, the mantle.  The boundary between the crust and underlying mantle is termed the Mohorovicic discontinuity, often referred to as the Moho.
Mantle material is hot (932 to 1,652 degrees Fahrenheit, 500 to 900 degrees Celsius) and dense and moves as semi-solid rock. The mantle is 1,802 miles (2,900 km) thick and is composed of silicate minerals that are similar to ones found in the crust, except with more magnesium and iron and less silicon and aluminum.
The base of the mantle, at the boundary with the outer core, is termed the Gutenberg discontinuity. It is at this depth (1,802 miles, 2,900 km) where secondary earthquake waves, or S waves, disappear, as S waves cannot travel through liquid.
Scientists are utilizing seismic tomography to construct 3-dimensional images of the mantle, but there are still limitations with the technology to fully map the Earth’s interior. 
The outer core is composed mostly of iron and nickel, with these metals found in liquid form. The outer core reaches between 7,200 and 9,000 degrees Fahrenheit (4,000 and 5,000 degrees Celsius) and is estimated to be 1,430 miles (2,300 km) thick. It is the movement of the liquid within the outer core that generates Earth’s magnetic field.
The inner core is the hottest part of our planet, at temperatures between 9,000 and 13,000 degrees Fahrenheit (5,000 and 7,000 degrees Celsius). This solid layer is smaller than our Moon at 750 miles (1,200 km) thick and is composed mostly of iron. The iron is under so much pressure from the overlying planet that it cannot melt and stays in a solid state.
The solid inner core is believed to have formed relatively recently, around half a billion years ago.  In February 2015, scientists reported in the journal Nature Geoscience their discovery that the inner core may in fact be two distinct cores with complex structural properties, where iron crystals in the outer layer of the inner core are oriented north-south, and iron crystals in the inner-inner core are aligned east-west.  This new discovery may help scientists learn more about the history and formation of planet Earth.
Layers based on physical properties
The Earth is separated into layers based on mechanical properties in addition to the composition layers described above.
The lithosphere is the outermost layer of the Earth ~100 km thick and is defined by its mechanical properties. This rigid layer includes the brittle upper portion of the mantle and the crust. The lithosphere is divided into 15 major tectonic plates, and it is at the boundary of these plates where major tectonic occurs, such as earthquakes and volcanoes. The lithosphere contains oceanic and continental crust that varies in age and thickness across locations and geologic time. The lithosphere is the coolest layer of the Earth in terms of temperature, with the heat from the lower layers generating the plate movements. The term “lithosphere” should not be confused with the use of “geosphere,” which is used to indicate all of Earth’s systems, including the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.
The asthenosphere includes the upper part of the mantle that is highly viscous and mechanically weak. The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) is where geophysicists mark the difference in ductility (a measures a solid material’s ability to deform or stretch under stress) between the two layers. This boundary in the upper mantle is marked at the 1300oC isotherm. Above the isotherm marks where the mantle behaves in a rigid fashion and below which it behaves in a ductile fashion. It is the ductile rocks in the upper part of the asthenosphere that are believed to be in the zone upon which the great rigid and brittle lithospheric plates of the Earth’s crust move about. Seismic waves travel relatively slowly through the asthenosphere.
The mesosphere refers to the mantle in the region under the lithosphere and the asthenosphere, but above the outer core. The upper boundary is defined as the sharp increase in seismic wave velocities and density at a depth of 660 kilometers (410 mi). This layer should not be confused with the atmospheric mesosphere.
This is a really cool crash course play-list on Big History. Its a great first piece of cognitive structure to build in an infinitely detailed ( And subject to mayor changes) as the time frames of the history chunks studied here are very big and subject to be in almost their entirety theoretical.
It dabs on physics, natural history, archeology and many other fields of study.
Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound. A scientist who works in the field of acoustics is an acoustician while someone working in the field of acoustics technology may be called an acoustical engineer. The application of acoustics is present in almost all aspects of modern society with the most obvious being the audio and noise control industries.
Hearing is one of the most crucial means of survival in the animal world, and speech is one of the most distinctive characteristics of human development and culture. Accordingly, the science of acoustics spreads across many facets of human society—music, medicine, architecture, industrial production, warfare and more. Likewise, animal species such as songbirds and frogs use sound and hearing as a key element of mating rituals or marking territories. Art, craft, science and technology have provoked one another to advance the whole, as in many other fields of knowledge. Robert Bruce Lindsay‘s ‘Wheel of Acoustics’ is a well accepted overview of the various fields in acoustics.
The word “acoustic” is derived from the Greek word ἀκουστικός (akoustikos), meaning “of or for hearing, ready to hear” and that from ἀκουστός (akoustos), “heard, audible”, which in turn derives from the verb ἀκούω (akouo), “I hear”.
The Latin synonym is “sonic”, after which the term sonics used to be a synonym for acoustics and later a branch of acoustics.Frequencies above and below the audible range are called “ultrasonic” and “infrasonic“, respectively. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acoustics
ME 566 Acoustics
Prof. Adnan Akay
Introduction to oscillations, waves, and sound generation and propagation. General concepts such as quantitative measures of sound, plane waves, and acoustic energy density and intensity. Perception of sound. Derivation of wave equation. Reflection, transmission and refraction of sound. Normal modes: vibrating membranes, and sound in a rectangular enclosure; room and duct acoustics. Acoustic horns. Absorption and attenuation of sound waves. Acoustic waves in spherical co-ordinate systems.
An introduction to cold atom physics. A glympse into NASA´s Coolest Experiment and The Future of the Field.
This video introduces the concepts involved in cooling down atoms to such low temperatures that their quantum mechanical properties can be observed and manipulated.
Nasa and Cold Atoms
NASA’s Cold Atom Lab will produce clouds of ultra-cold atoms aboard the International Space Station to perform quantum physics experiments in microgravity. Atoms are chilled to about one 10 billionth of a degree above Absolute Zero, or about 10 billion times colder than the average temperature of deep space. At those temperatures, atoms behave in strange ways, allowing scientists to investigate the fundamental nature of matter. For more info about CAL, visit https://coldatomlab.jpl.nasa.gov/ The clouds of ultra-cold atoms CAL produces are called Bose-Einstein Condensates (BECs), a bizarre state of matter in which atoms exhibit quantum behavior at macroscopic a scale you can see. BECs make it possible for researchers to probe the fundamental nature of matter. Hundreds of BEC experiments exist on Earth, but on the International Space Station, free from the pull of gravity, scientists will be able to observe BECs for much longer than what is possible on Earth, and reach even colder temperatures than what is typically achieved on the ground. The Cold Atom Lab will move scientists another step closer to solving some of the biggest mysteries in the universe, such as understanding the nature of dark matter and dark energy and solving the disagreement between quantum mechanics and the theory of gravity. Research done on CAL can also have practical applications, such as making improvements to atomic clock technologies, which are used in spacecraft navigation, as well as the GPS satellites that provide navigation information to devices like smartphones. CAL research could also lead to improvements to quantum sensors used for remote sensing on spacecraft. These sensors can be used for a variety of applications, including monitoring Earth’s changing climate and remotely studying the internal makeup of planets and asteroids.
Dr. Erickson is a research physicist in the Cold Atom Precision Timing and Navigation group in the Space Vehicles Directorate of the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory. He believes that the future of many commonplace devices lies with the technology being developed to cool and trap atoms. Cold atom technology is at the cusp of transitioning from the laboratory to industry. As more people develop a basic understanding of atomic physics, the applications of it may be found to expand across many diverse ﬁelds. In the spirit of ideas worth spreading, TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks video and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized TED event. The TED Conference provides general guidance for the TEDx program, but individual TEDx events are self-organized.* (*Subject to certain rules and regulations)
Physics doesn’t just happen in a fancy lab — it happens when you push a piece of buttered toast off the table or drop a couple of raisins in a fizzy drink or watch a coffee spill dry. Become a more interesting dinner guest as physicist Helen Czerski presents various concepts in physics you can become familiar with using everyday things found in your kitchen.
The TED Talks channel features the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world’s leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes (or less). Look for talks on Technology, Entertainment and Design — plus science, business, global issues, the arts and more.
Ethnoecology is the scientific study of how different groups of people living in different locations understand the ecosystems around them, and their relationships with surrounding environments.
It seeks valid, reliable understanding of how we as humans have interacted with the environment and how these intricate relationships have been sustained over time.
The “ethno” (see ethnology) prefix in ethnoecology indicates a localized study of a people, and in conjunction with ecology, signifies people’s understanding and experience of environments around them. Ecology is the study of the interactions between living organisms and their environment; enthnoecology applies a human focused approach to this subject. The development of the field lies in applying indigenous knowledge of botany and placing it in a global context.
At some 1.3 million described species, insects account for more than two-thirds of all known organisms, date back some 400 million years, and have many kinds of interactions with humans and other forms of life on earth.
In the same way “integers” are a set of objects, “numbers” have rules about how they interact. For example “addition” or “multiplication” of two “numbers”. These rules on how they interact are called “axioms” and they tell us about the nature and how these groups of numbers interact. Rings are similiar in terms of having elements or sybols that we defined and then add or subtract based on specific rules.
“Integers have lots of properties that continue to work if we scale back on the number of “rules” we are willing to take for granted? What can we still prove? For every set of “rules” we take, we can develop an entire theory of results which require nothing more than the set of rules we started out with. For one specific set of rules, any object which is found satisfying all of those properties is called a ring (though people differ slightly on exactly what they call a ring).
There is a different set of rules which define what people call a group (the definition of a group is more set than that of a ring), a different one still for a vector space, one for a field, … The list goes on. People have dreamed up lots of different sets of rules which, for some reason or another, are more relevant to what they find interesting. More generally, this whole idea is the idea of abstraction; a ring is just one of many abstract objects.
On the other hand, when you strip many of the extra details out and just focus on these smaller sets of rules, some facts become more obviously true, because it is clear which properties imply the result you are looking for. Rings are objects with sufficiently general rules as to gain insight on objects from the set of integers or the set of complex numbers, to the set of 3×3 matrices, or the set of all functions from the real numbers to the real numbers.
These are at least the thoughts that went into the formation of the theory (though they don’t much distinguish between, say, ring theory and group theory). A bit more specifically, the notion of a ring is a generalization of standard number systems, in that they retain two distinct operations with “multiplication” distributing over “addition” (though a general ring does not require that multiplication commutes as is the case for matrices). An exact definition of a ring is easy enough to put down, but not particularly enlightening without more context. Hopefully this helps provide some of the context. ” – Source: mymathforum.com/abstract-algebra/20100-simplified-explanation-algebraic-ring-theory.html
I like to plan ahead, so I usually do my research before I decide what to do and where to go, and I also do a little more planning and youtube researching when I have already decided where to go. Not everyone does this, so let’s just say I did the research for you. Here are some of the places where you can enjoy on summer. Of course there are great traditional spots to go and experience the “Great American Summer Vacation” like Miami or Hawaii. But this list is for the curious mind, that needs something outside what TV taught us. here we go:
The Big City, a Summer Vacation Spot?! If you are not one of those people that like to go hiking, biking, skiing, or beach partying, you are not alone. This might be your best summer travel option:
New York City as a summer destination: It just the best choice you have if you like to spend time in the city. This is a list of things to do in NYC on Summer:
Amazing Coffee shops
Historic Broadway Shows
Bucket list Art museums
Best in the word, five star, restaurants
And you can´t leave with out visiting Central Park
Boston is one of America´s most historic city, not only classic but also contemporary. You can tour around and appraise graceful mansions, historical buildings, naughty hotels and trendy restaurants. Its venue of Museums is nothing to overlook.
Chicago, also known as the Windy City is our last epic recommendation, ( of many, but this is not a city list, its an alternative summer vacation list) in our urban summer vacation list. Cheaper than the other two and easy to cruise with world famous public transportation, it is a great destination for the outdoor drinker, lake lovers, concerts, festivals, and its unique and modern skyline makes it the summer destination for urban designers, engineers and of course, architects. Personally one of my favorites!
Mountains as a Summer Destination
Now if what you´re looking for is to get as far as possible from any and cities, and you love hiking, look towards the mountains and feast on natures highland treasures.
Aspen, Colorado has a music festival, outdoor coffee shops, and a very “Aspeni” style for most of their establishments. Aspen makes you feel like you´re traveling is a alternate time line of Europe had there been more “Hippies” after WWII. Their farmers market and a free transportation is something to experience. Hiking trails, biking trails, fishing spots, rafting and kayaking rentals and on top of it all, it is actually cheaper to stay here during summer than during the winter. Yes! A smart choice of the outdoorsy type.
Jackson Hole, Wyoming has an amazing aerial tram that can take you rock climbing and hiking with the most impressive views. They have galleries for you to take a day trip to. Keep in mind that summer is a very busy time in this particular part of the world, so do not expect for a quiet vacation.
Park City, Utah is now more of a large resort than a town. During the summer its main street transforms into a giant open roof dining room, as the Annual Savor the Summit event is held. And to burn those delicious calories, there are wonderful options for hiking and mountain biking.
The weekly farmers market is an experience on itself, with a plethora of fresh produce, hand crafted souvenirs and curious creative foods. You can also find a place to go and enjoy a great picnic during a concert, as the art scene is also wonderful.
Beach as Summer Vacation If you are like a lot of my friends, then when you think of summer you probably think of white beaches, a warm ocean and lots of sun. So ofcourse we had to ad beaches. Here is a list for you to think about your summer vacation:
Santa Barbara, California has an amazing downtown, there are great options for hiking. At the end of Santa Cruz Boulevard, you can find the “One Thousand Steps Beach” which is not literally one thousand steps by the way. But is a cool experience. It probably offers the best sunset you will ever see in at “Butterfly Beach”, and if you want to go surfing then “Arroyo Burro Beach” is the place to find a wonderful community of beach goers. You can find amazing wineries, and great places to eat and shop around.
Gulf Shores, Alabama is not a “top of mind” beach destination and really is more of a family friendly spot after spring break parties end. You are sure to find extremely fresh seafood, and great places to sunbathe. They also have golf courses and an acclaimed water parks, a very interesting Zoo and a shopping Outlet. Also, you can have a day trip to Fort Morgan State Historic Site.
After the tile is mounted, the next step is grouting the tiles, this is a less time-consuming and work exhaustive task than the installation, but it is actually more important for a long lasting job; it will also guarantee that the floor under the tile stays safe from moisture. Grouting can be a rewarding task because filling those gaps will make the tiles look pretty.
What is grout Grout is a form of concrete (fluid) that is used to fill gaps or spaces. Grout is a mixture of water, cement, and sand; although you may already find premixes in the market both in powder form (cement and sand only) or premixed fluid containers (easier but less recommended). Tiling grout is often used to fill the spaces between tiles or mosaics, and secure tiles to its base. What you need to know about grout Regular grout comes in a diversity of colors, what you want to do is choose the one that matches the color of your tiles, also if you want to minimize color disparity you not only need to use as little water as possible (for powder mixes), but also mix as thoroughly as possible, it is best to mix it by hand, try to achieve a creamy peanut butter consistency. Light grout tends to emphasize the individual tiles by blending in, or becoming invisible, while dark grout tends to emphasize patterns. If you choose a color that matches your tiles, then you will have a continuous feeling. If you want your tiles to stand out, then choose a contrasting color for your grout. If you are grouting a high traffic area you are better off with a dark grout since light color ones tend to get dirty pretty fast, and it is difficult to clean. There is sanded and unsanded grout. Sanded grout is stronger and more resistant, if your space between tiles is larger than 1/8 of an inch, then you should use sanded grout. Unsanded grout is recommended for soft stones tiles like polished limestone or marble. How to apply grout If you are re-grouting an old tiled surface, you first need to clean the area by scraping and vacuuming. You are going to need a float to spread the grout. Smear the grout diagonally across the tile to force it deep into the joints and prevent it from being sucked back out as your float slides along. Grout walls first and floors last, that way you don´t have chances to ruin the already finished up floor. To remove the bulk grout, you need to wipe by doing a couple of “S” movements. You will also need to sponge off the surface with a damped (make sure it is not wet) sponge, this is also a diagonal movement, remember to rinse your sponge constantly. After it is completely dry (30 to 45 minutes), you will see a haze has formed, polish away this haze with a microfiber towel. Corners do not need grouting, corners tend to crack, therefore you are best off with caulk. A very important Tip Re-mix the grout at least every 15 minutes, and check if it needs a little more water to keep the ideal consistency.
It beings as an intellectual movement in ancient Greece that strives to learn more, to know more than social convention allowed back then. Today’s conventions are also a vail on truth. As behavioral economics teaches us, we are not logical by nature, we are prone to get erroneous ideas about the world that surrounds us. Philosophy then searches to learn how to learn. As something that helps us gain truth and reality. This would eventually lead to the scientific method. It means love of wisdom, and implicitly a search for truth. Also early on the use for philosophers are your general clear thinkers was widely spread, like a consultant so to speak. Philosophy has seemed to be reduced to entertainment and academia.
As science emerged fro philosophy, philosophy still remains at the spearpoint of exploration of reality, of truth. It is now the main tool to ask some of the biggest questions we have.
There are three big layers in Philosophy:
Metaphysics, that studies the nature of reality. ( And is more and is becoming quite relevant to Theoretical Physics).
Epistemology, the branch that studies the nature of knowledge.
Ethics: The bran of philosophy that studies and evaluate human conduct and if things are good or bad.
Aesthetics: The branch of philosophy that studies the nature of beauty.
Philosophy, in the end, is a way to make to keep track some of the more lower layered meta-structures of our existence. Like the foundations of a house, philosophy builds from real abstractions of reality constructing cognitive meta-structures of how we understand things, creating the platforms on which science and art flourish.
Basic linguistics dissect the study of language into these sub-fields Syntax, Semantics, Morphology, Phonetics, and Phonology.
Syntax refers to the structure of language, the order of the kinds of words we use to transmit ideas. Different languages have different syntax structures that can be very complex. For example, You friend’s sister’s brother’s second through after his first puff of a joint. “The structure and context of the language gave you a very particular idea”.
Semantics refers to the meaning of language, the difference between explicit or ambiguity. For example the difference between a pen ( To write) and animal pen.
Morphology: The structure of works, the smallest unit of meaning can be extracted from words, for example, Bird. How are mani ideas compound in this word? Well, 2. 1 it refers to the animal, and 2, it has an s. So it’s plural. Now “Establishment” comes from “Establish” and add “ment” and you create a completely new meaning.
Phonetics: The properties and the sounds of the words and how they are created. For example the study of S vs Z. Try to create both sounds and move from one to the other and pay attention to the different parts of your body that are used to create the sounds and the differences.
Phonology: Patterns of sounds, this studies the variations and similarities of the different sound patterns created by one syllable. For example the differences between “Ebay and bay vs ebay and pay”.
Economic history is the study of economic events in the past. A series of different methods are used to analyze these events including statistical and historical methods. Here is an example of an extremely controversial “historical” account on economic events of the recent past:
Development of economic history science
” In Germany in the late 19th century, scholars in a number of universities, led by Gustav von Schmoller, developed the historical school of economic history. It ignored quantitative and mathematical approaches. Historical approach dominated German and French scholarship for most of the 20th century. The approach was spread to Great Britain by William Ashley, 1860–1927, and dominated British economic history for much of the 20th century. Britain’s first professor in the subject was George Unwin at the University of Manchester). In France, economic history was heavily influenced by the Annales School from the early 20th century to the present. It exerts a worldwide influence through its Journal Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales.
Treating economic history as a discrete academic discipline has been a contentious issue for many years. Academics at the London School of Economics and the University of Cambridge had numerous disputes over the separation of economics and economic history in the interwar era. Cambridge economists believed that pure economics involved a component of economic history and that the two were inseparably entangled. Those at the LSE believed that economic history warranted its own courses, research agenda, and academic chair separated from mainstream economics.
In the initial period of the subject’s development, the LSE position of separating economic history from economics won out. Many universities in the UK developed independent programmes in economic history rooted in the LSE model. Indeed, the Economic History Society had its inauguration at LSE in 1926 and the University of Cambridge eventually established its own economic history programme. However, the past twenty years have witnessed the widespread closure of these separate programmes in the UK and the integration of the discipline into either history or economics departments. Only the LSE retains a separate economic history department and stand-alone undergraduate and graduate programme in economic history. Cambridge, Glasgow, the LSE, and Oxford together train the vast majority of economic historians coming through the British higher education system today.
Meanwhile, in the US, the field of economic history has in recent decades been largely subsumed into other fields of economics and is seen as a form of applied economics. As a consequence, there are no specialist economic history graduate programs at any universities anywhere in the country. Economic history remains as a special field component of regular economics or history Ph.D. programs in universities including at University of California, Berkeley, Harvard University, Northwestern University and Yale University.” Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_history
Economic Geography is the study of the distribution of economic activities it is a sub field of geography. It also does the location of industries, economic agglomerations and even the culture environment interaction and globalization is studied by this science.
” Some of the first traces of the study of spatial aspects of economic activities can be found in seven Chinese maps of the State of Qin dating to the 4th century BC. Ancient writings can be attributed to the Greek geographer Strabo’s Geographika compiled almost 2000 years ago. As the science of cartography developed, geographers illuminated many aspects used today in the field; maps created by different European powers described the resources likely to be found in American, African, and Asian territories. The earliest travel journals included descriptions of the native peoples, the climate, the landscape, and the productivity of various locations. These early accounts encouraged the development of transcontinental trade patterns and ushered in the era of mercantilism.
World War II contributed to the popularization of geographical knowledge generally, and post-war economic recovery and development contributed to the growth of economic geography as a discipline. During environmental determinism’s time of popularity, Ellsworth Huntington and his theory of climatic determinism, while later greatly criticized, notably influenced the field. Valuable contributions also came from location theorists such as Johann Heinrich von Thünen or Alfred Weber. Other influential theories include Walter Christaller’s Central place theory, the theory of core and periphery.
Fred K. Schaefer’s article “Exceptionalism in geography: A Methodological Examination”, published in the American journal Annals of the Association of American Geographers, and his critique of regionalism, made a large impact on the field: the article became a rallying point for the younger generation of economic geographers who were intent on reinventing the discipline as a science, and quantitative methods began to prevail in research. Well-known economic geographers of this period include William Garrison, Brian Berry, Waldo Tobler, Peter Haggett and William Bunge.
Contemporary economic geographers tend to specialize in areas such as location theory and spatial analysis (with the help of geographic information systems), market research, geography of transportation, real estate price evaluation, regional and global development, planning, Internet geography, innovation, social networks.” Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_geography
There is an international agreement that explains how all related to space discovery is and should be used for the benefit of all human kind. If you mix this new sustainable development goals of the UN, you find that the research and innovation in aerospace can be used to address humanity’s biggest challenges.
Consumer economics analyses microeconomic behaviors of individuals, families and consumers. In the past it was known as home economics.
” The traditional economists had little interest in analyzing family units. When economic theory was insufficient to explain the phenomenon of women starting to enter the labor force “en masse”, consumer economics both gained attention and received important contributions from economic theorists. Major theoretical cornerstones include Gary Becker’s Household Production Model, time allocation models and Stigler’s information search theory.
Consumer economics concludes the family-unit economists were strongly influenced by the most recent “consumer era”; which was the “Modern Consumer Movement” of the 1970s. The connection between Consumer Economics and consumer-related politics has been overt, although the strength of the connection varies between Universities and individuals.
Many facets of consumer economics are measured regularly by the Federal Reserve System and the Bureau of Economic Analysis and are available for the public. A number of indicators are published regularly from these and other academic sources, such as personal income, total household debt, and the Consumer Leverage Ratio.
The effect of consumer economics on the economy is another field of study in economics. It is called the “consumer economy”, a term known from Hazlitt’s Economics in One Lesson.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consumer_economics
Kim Stanley Robinson talks about the problems caused by global climate change. He strives to address these issues through his novels. He also talks about a group of dimensions that should be considered at all times: Science, Technology and the Spiritual.
Author Howard Waldrup talks about his beginnings as a fan artist and writer. He also discusses his extensive short fiction work, his fondness for creating subtly alternate worlds, and his love of classic movies. This interview was recorded on 10/15/2005 and shown as part of episode 188 of Fast Forward: Contemporary Science Fiction.
Author James Morrow talks about “The Last Witchfinder”, and discusses the rise of the modern Age of Reason, “a historical-fiction that uses that uses witchhunts as a means to introduce the titanic paradigm change that represents a shift from renaissance, that admires the cultural past, to the era of enlightenment, where we become authors of new discoveries and become pragmatical and science-based. James Morrow (born March 17, 1947) is an American novelist and short-story writer known for filtering large philosophical and theological questions through his satiric sensibility. Most of Morrow’s oeuvre has been published as science fiction and fantasy, but he is also the author of two unconventional historical novels, The Last Witchfinder and Galápagos Regained. He variously describes himself as a “scientific humanist,” a “bewildered pilgrim,” and a “child of the Enlightenment.” Morrow presently lives in State College, Pennsylvania with his second wife, Kathryn Smith Morrow, his son Christopher, and his two dogs. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_K._Morrow
Peter Beagle plays “The Elderly Gentleman’s Song.” Peter Soyer Beagle (born April 20, 1939) is an American novelist and screenwriter, especially fantasy fiction. His best-known work is The Last Unicorn (1968), a fantasy novel he wrote in his twenties, which Locussubscribers voted the number five “All-Time Best Fantasy Novel” in 1987. During the last twenty-five years he has won several literary awards, including a World Fantasy Award for Life Achievement in 2011. He was named Damon Knight Memorial Grand Master by the SFWA in 2018. – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_S._Beagle
Author Peter S. Beagle talks about his life and writing career, including socializing with the poetry and theatre crowd in his teen years, crossing the US on a motor scooter, and his work as a musician and dishwasher. He also discusses several of his books, including The Last Unicorn, and the legal rights issues surrounding the animated film version of it. This interview was recorded on 5/28/2006 and originally shown as part of episode 191 of Fast Forward: Contemporary Science Fiction.
Author Naomi Novik talks about Her Majesty’s Dragon and Throne of Jade, the first two books in her Temeraire series. The series is a fantasy version of the Napoleonic Wars – but with dragons functioning as an air force. She discusses the roles of men, women & dragons in the society, and how the aviators and dragons are considered an “outcast” group. She also talks about her experience in writing for video games prior to writing novels. This interview was recorded at Balticon on 5/27/2006, and was originally shown as part of episode #192 of Fast Forward: Contemporary Science Fiction.
Best selling author Laurell K. Hamilton talks about Danse Macabre, the 14th book in her Anita Blake series. She discusses the relationships of the major characters in the series, both human and vampire, and how she manages the large cast of characters in the books. She also discusses how she handles working on her other book series while still keeping the Anita Blake books on schedule. This interview was recorded on 7/06/2006 and was originally shown as part of episode 193 of Fast Forward: Contemporary Science Fiction.
Author Maria V. Snyder talks about her book Storm Glass, the first volume in the Glass Book series. This series follows characters in the same fantasy universe as her popular Study Book series. The interview was originally shown as part of episode #224 of the television series Fast Forward: Contemporary Science Fiction.
Award winning author Michael Swanwick discusses Hope-in-the-Mist, his non-fiction book about the life of Hope Mirrlees. He talks about her aristocratic life, her influential 1926 fantasy novel, Lud-in-the-Mist, and her poem, Paris. He also discusses his own recent fiction projects. This interview was recorded in 2009 and originally shown as part of episode 225. of Fast Forward: Contemporary Science fiction.
Author Tom Doyle talks about “The Wizard of Macatawa,” the story that won him a Washington Science Fiction Association Small Press Award. He also relates his experience at the Clarion Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers’ Workshop, and how he drew upon time living in Japan to create fantasy fiction.
This interview was originally part of episode #227 of Fast Forward: Contemporary Science Fiction. It was recorded on 4/29/2009.
Author Will McIntosh discusses writing both short fiction and novels. He talks about expanding the award winning short story “Bridesicle” into Love Minus Eighty, a novel about love and dating in the future. He also discusses the social themes and challenges faced by the characters of his science fiction books. This interview was recorded on 10/10/2014, at the Capclave science fiction convention. This is the complete interview – a somewhat shorter version was originally shown as part of episode 276 of Fast Forward: Contemporary Science Fiction. That version of the interview was edited to fit within the time constraints of the television show.
In Fast Forward’s first foray into short Skype interviews, author Alethea Kontis talks about Trixter, her upcoming “book number 2.5” in the Woodcutter Sisters series. This interview was recorded (via Skype) on April 19, 2015.
In this Fast Forward: Contemporary Science Fiction interview, author Genevieve Valentine talks about her childhood interest in fantasy and storytelling, as well as her first two novels, Mechanique and The Girls at the Kingfisher Club. She also discusses some of her other stories and her recent job of writing for the Catwoman comic. This interview was recorded on 10/10/2014, at the Capclave science fiction convention, before a live audience. This version on YouTube is the complete interview. A slightly shorter version (edited to fit the show length) was shown as part of Fast Forward episode #277 in May of 2015.