What’s wrong with fast food? A clever summary.

1. A sign advertising inclusion of highly processed meat and even sugar in a sandwich.

Many fast foods are rich in calories as they include considerable amounts of mayonnaise, cheese, salt, fried meat, and oil, thus containing high-fat content (Schlosser). Excessive consumption of fatty ingredients such as these results in an unbalanced diet. Proteins and vitamins are generally recommended for daily consumption rather than large quantities of carbohydrates or fat. Due to their fat content, fast foods are implicated in poor health and various serious health issues such as obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, there is strong empirical evidence showing that fast foods are also detrimental to appetite, respiratory system function, and central nervous system function (Schlosser).

2. McDonald’s has received criticism for serving food high in saturated fat and calories.

According to the Massachusetts Medical Society Committee on Nutrition, fast foods are commonly high in fat content, and studies have found associations between fast food intake and increased body mass index (BMI) and weight gain. In particular many fast foods are high in saturated fats which are widely held to be a risk factor in heart disease. In 2010, heart disease was the number 1 ranking cause of death. *(…)

3. Food poisoning risk

This section needs attention from an expert in Health. The specific problem is: The info about manure needs verification. WikiProject Health may be able to help recruit an expert. (December 2013)
Besides the risks posed by trans fats, high caloric intake, and low fiber intake, another cited health risk is food poisoning. In his book Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal, Eric Schlosser argues that meatpacking factories concentrate livestock into feedlots and herd them through processing assembly lines operated by employees of various levels of expertise, some of which may be poorly trained, increasing the risk of large-scale food poisoning.

Manure on occasion gets mixed with meat, possibly contaminating it with salmonella and pathogenic E. coli. Usually spread through undercooked hamburgers, raw vegetables, and contaminated water, it is difficult to treat. Although supportive treatment can substantially aid inflicted individuals, since endotoxin is released from gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli upon death, antibiotic use to treat E. coli infections is not recommended.[14] About 4% of people infected with E. coli 0157:H7 develop hemolytic uremic syndrome, and about 5% of children who develop the syndrome die. The rate of developing HUS is 3 in 100,000 or 0.003%. E. coli 0157:H7 has become the leading cause of renal failure among American children.

These numbers include rates from all sources of poisoning, including lettuce; radish sprouts; alfalfa sprouts; unpasteurized apple juice/cider; cold cooked or undercooked meat; and unpasteurized animal milk. Additional environmental sources include fecal-contaminated lakes, nonchlorinated municipal water supply, petting farm animals and unhygienic person-to-person contact.[15] An average of sources leads to the number of 0.00000214% for undercooked beef.

4. Food-contact paper packaging

Fast food often comes in wrappers coated with polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) to prevent grease from leaking through them. These compounds are able to migrate from the wrappers into the packaged food.[16] Upon ingestion, PAPs are subsequently biotransformed into perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), compounds which have long attracted attention due to their detrimental health effects in rodents and their unusually long half-lives in humans. While epidemiological evidence has not demonstrated causal links between PFCAs and these health problems in humans, the compounds are consistently correlated with high levels of cholesterol and uric acid, and PAPs, as found on fast food packaging, may be a significant source of PFCA contamination in humans.

On average, nearly one-third of U.S. children aged 4 to 19 eat fast food on a daily basis. Over the course of a year this is likely to result in a child gaining 6 extra pounds every year. *(…) any given day 30.3% of the total sample had eaten fast food. Fast-food consumption was prevalent in both males and females, in all racial/ethnic groups, and in all regions of the country.

Contrary evidence has been documented that questions the correlation of a fast food diet and obesity. A 2014 People Magazine article recounts the experience of John Cisna, a science teacher at Colo-NESCO High School, who ate a fast food diet for 90 days. At the end of 90 days he had lost 37 pounds and his cholesterol level went from 249 to 170. Cisna kept to a strict 2,000 calorie limit a day and walked 45 minutes a day. Harley Pasternak, a celebrity trainer and nutrition expert, supports Cisna’s experiment by saying, “While I don’t think it’s a great idea to eat too much fast food…I do think he is right. Fast food, while far from healthy, doesn’t make people gain weight. Eating too much fast food too often is what can make you gain weight—the same way eating too much of anything can pack on the pounds.” -https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criticism_of_fast_foodFast F

What is Procastination?

 

” Procrastination (from latin’s “procrastinare”, that translates in to : the prefix pro-, ‘forward’, and suffix -crastinus, ’till next day’ from cras, ‘tomorrow’) is the avoidance of doing a task that needs to be accomplished. Sometimes, procrastination takes place until the “last minute” before a deadline.

Procrastination can take hold on any aspect of life—putting off cleaning the stove, repairing a leaky roof, seeing a doctor or dentist, submitting a job report or academic assignment or broaching a stressful issue with a partner. Procrastination can lead to feelings of: guilt, inadequacy, depression and self-doubt.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Procrastination

But is procrastination really bad?

Who is Gary A. Klein?

Insights are unexpected shifts in the way we understand how something works, and how to make it work better. Gary’s talk examines two mysteries. First, where do insights come from? This talk presents a new account of the nature of insights. Second, how can we trigger more insights? Gary describes a strategy for adopting an insight mindset.

Gary Klein, Ph.D., is known for the cognitive models, such as the Recognition-Primed Decision (RPD) model, the Data/Frame model of sensemaking, the Management By Discovery model of planning in complex settings, and the Triple Path model of insight, the methods he developed, including techniques for Cognitive Task Analysis, the PreMortem method of risk assessment, and the ShadowBox training approach, and the movement he helped to found in 1989 — Naturalistic Decision Making. The company he started in 1978, Klein Associates, grew to 37 employees by the time he sold it in 2005. He formed his new company, ShadowBox LLC, in 2014 and is the author of five books. Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n5OO9L67jL4

Who is Daniel Kahneman?

Daniel Kahneman, the recipient of the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for his seminal work in psychology that challenged the rational model of judgment and decision making, is one of our most important thinkers. His ideas have had a profound and widely regarded impact on many fields—including economics, medicine, and politics—but until now, he has never brought together his many years of research and thinking in one book.

In the highly anticipated Thinking, Fast and Slow, Kahneman takes us on a groundbreaking tour of the mind and explains the two systems that drive the way we think. System 1 is fast, intuitive, and emotional; System 2 is slower, more deliberative, and more logical. Kahneman exposes the extraordinary capabilities—and also the faults and biases—of fast thinking, and reveals the pervasive influence of intuitive impressions on our thoughts and behavior. The impact of loss aversion and overconfidence on corporate strategies, the difficulties of predicting what will make us happy in the future, the challenges of properly framing risks at work and at home, the profound effect of cognitive biases on everything from playing the stock market to planning the next vacation—each of these can be understood only by knowing how the two systems work together to shape our judgments and decisions.

Engaging the reader in a lively conversation about how we think, Kahneman reveals where we can and cannot trust our intuitions and how we can tap into the benefits of slow thinking. He offers practical and enlightening insights into how choices are made in both our business and our personal lives—and how we can use different techniques to guard against the mental glitches that often get us into trouble. Thinking, Fast and Slow will transform the way you think about thinking.
Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CjVQJdIrDJ0

What is Suicide?

” Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one’s own death. Risk factors include mental disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorders, and substance abuse, including alcoholism and use of benzodiazepines. Other suicides are impulsive acts due to stress such as from financial difficulties, troubles with relationships, or from bullying. Those who have previously attempted suicide are at higher risk for future attempts. Suicide prevention efforts include limiting access to methods of suicide, such as firearms, drugs, and poisons, treating mental disorders and substance misuse, proper media reporting of suicide, and improving economic conditions. Although crisis hotlines are common, there is little evidence for their effectiveness.

The most commonly used method of suicide varies between countries and is partly related to the availability of effective means. Common methods include hanging, pesticide poisoning, and firearms. Suicide resulted in 828,000 deaths globally in 2015 (up from 712,000 deaths in 1990). This makes it the 10th leading cause of death worldwide.

Approximately 0.5% to 1.4% of people die by suicide, about 12 per 100,000 persons per year. Three-quarters of suicides globally occur in the developing world. Rates of completed suicides are generally higher in men than in women, ranging from 1.5 times as much in the developing world to 3.5 times in the developed world. Suicide is generally most common among those over the age of 70; however, in certain countries, those aged between 15 and 30 are at highest risk. There are an estimated 10 to 20 million non-fatal attempted suicides every year. Non-fatal suicide attempts may lead to injury and long-term disabilities. In the Western world, attempts are more common in young people and females.

Views on suicide have been influenced by broad existential themes such as religion, honor, and the meaning of life. The Abrahamic religions traditionally consider suicide an offense towards God due to the belief in the sanctity of life. During the samurai era in Japan, a form of suicide known as seppuku (harakiri) was respected as a means of making up for failure or as a form of protest. Sati, a practice outlawed by the British Raj, expected the Indian widow to kill herself on her husband’s funeral fire, either willingly or under pressure from the family and society. Suicide and attempted suicide, while previously illegal, are no longer so in most Western countries. It remains a criminal offense in many countries. In the 20th and 21st centuries, suicide has been used on rare occasions as a form of protest, and kamikaze and suicide bombings have been used as a military or terrorist tactic.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suicide

Shraddha Shankar tells in her own words the experience she´s  had in her attempts of suicide on her life. Watch this interesting video of this brave lady, TED talk.

What are Dreams and Why We Dream?

“A dream is a succession of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that usually occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep. The content and purpose of dreams are not fully understood, though they have been a topic of scientific speculation, as well as a subject of philosophical and religious interest, throughout recorded history. Dream interpretation is the attempt at drawing meaning from dreams and searching for an underlying message. The scientific study of dreams is called oneirology.

Dreams mainly occur in the rapid-eye-movement (REM) stage of sleep—when brain activity is high and resembles that of being awake. REM sleep is revealed by continuous movements of the eyes during sleep. At times, dreams may occur during other stages of sleep. However, these dreams tend to be much less vivid or memorable. The length of a dream can vary; they may last for a few seconds, or approximately 20–30 minutes. People are more likely to remember the dream if they are awakened during the REM phase. The average person has three to five dreams per night, and some may have up to seven; however, most dreams are immediately or quickly forgotten. Dreams tend to last longer as the night progresses. During a full eight-hour night sleep, most dreams occur in the typical two hours of REM.

Opinions about the meaning of dreams have varied and shifted through time and culture. Many endorse the Freudian theory of dreams – that dreams reveal insight into hidden desires and emotions. Other prominent theories include those suggesting that dreams assist in memory formation, problem-solving, or simply are a product of random brain activation. The earliest recorded dreams were acquired from materials dating back approximately 5000 years, in Mesopotamia, where they were documented on clay tablets. In the Greek and Roman periods, the people believed that dreams were direct messages from deities or deceased persons and that they predicted the future. Some cultures practiced dream incubation with the intention of cultivating dreams that are of prophecy.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dream

 

How to Break Bad Habits?

Bad habits are all those things we do that do not guide us to anything good. This includes smoking, sleeping in incorrect places. How do we control or break them we need to accept we are doing something that is not doing us any good when you mindfully recognize your habit you can break it.

” A bad habit is a negative behavior pattern. Common examples include procrastination, fidgeting, overspending, stereotyping, gossips, bullying, and nail-biting.

It is not a misconception that it takes on average 66 days to break a habit. The amount of time it takes to break a habit is generally between 18 and 254 days. This should often be repeated once or maybe twice depending on what the habit is, something small like chewing fingernail should only have to be done once. larger habits like smoking should be repeated at twice but everyone is different so it could be less. There are many techniques for removing bad habits once they have become established. One good one is to go for between 21 and 28 days try as hard as possible not to give in to the habit then rewarding your self at the end of it. Then try to go a week, if the habit remains to repeat the process, this method is proven to have a high success rate.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bad_habit

How Does Body Language Express who We Are?

Our body language can really tell who we are and can even show things of how we feel, experts say that with the appropriate pose we can show others security or anything we want to transmit. We can boost out a series of feelings when we do not even feel like them.

” Body language is a type of non-verbal communication in which physical behavior, as opposed to words, are used to express or convey information. Such behavior includes facial expressions, body posture, gestures, eye movement, touch and the use of space. Body language exists in both animals and humans, but this article focuses on interpretations of human body language. It is also known as kinesics.

Body language must not be confused with sign language, assign languages are full languages like spoken languages and have their own complex grammar systems, as well as being able to exhibit the fundamental properties that exist in all languages. Body language, on the other hand, does not have a grammar and must be interpreted broadly, instead of having an absolute meaning corresponding with a certain movement, so it is not a language like sign language and is simply termed as a “language” due to popular culture.

In a community, there are agreed-upon interpretations of particular behavior. Interpretations may vary from country to country, or culture to culture. On this note, there is controversy on whether body language is universal. Body language, a subset of nonverbal communication, complements verbal communication in social interaction. In fact, some researchers conclude that nonverbal communication accounts for the majority of information transmitted during interpersonal interactions. It helps to establish the relationship between two people and regulates interaction, but can be ambiguous.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Body_language

What are Aerobic Exercises?

” Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is a physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process. Aerobic literally means “relating to, involving, or requiring free oxygen”, and refers to the use of oxygen to adequately meet energy demands during exercise via aerobic metabolism. Generally, light-to-moderate intensity activities that are sufficiently supported by aerobic metabolism can be performed for extended periods of time.

When practiced in this way, examples of cardiovascular/aerobic exercise are medium to long distance running/jogging, swimming, cycling, and walking, according to the first extensive research on aerobic exercise, conducted in the 1960s on over 5,000 U.S. Air Force personnel by Dr. Kenneth H. Cooper.

Kenneth Cooper was the first person to introduce the concept of aerobic exercise. In the 1960s, Cooper started research into preventive medicine. He became intrigued by the belief that exercise can preserve one’s health. In 1970 he created his own institute (the Cooper Institute) for non-profit research and education devoted to preventive medicine. He sparked millions into becoming active and is now known as the “father of aerobics”. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerobic_exercise

What is Crossfit?

” CrossFit is a branded fitness regimen created by Greg Glassman and is a registered trademark of CrossFit, Inc. which was founded by Greg Glassman and Lauren Jenai in 2000. Promoted as both a physical exercise philosophy and also as a competitive fitness sport, CrossFit workouts incorporate elements from high-intensity interval training, Olympic weightlifting, plyometrics, powerlifting, gymnastics, girevoy sport, calisthenics, strongman, and other exercises. It is practiced by members of over 13,000 affiliated gyms, roughly half of which are located in the United States, and by individuals who complete daily workouts (otherwise known as “WODs” or “workouts of the day”).

CrossFit is a strength and conditioning program consisting mainly of a mix of aerobic exercise, calisthenics (body weight exercises), and Olympic weightlifting. CrossFit, Inc. describes its strength and conditioning program as “constantly varied functional movements executed at high intensity across broad time and modal domains,” with the stated goal of improving fitness, which it defines as “work capacity across broad time and modal domains.” Hour-long classes at affiliated gyms, or “boxes”, typically include a warm-up, a skill development segment, the high-intensity “workout of the day” (or WOD), and a period of individual or group stretching. Some gyms also often have a strength focused movement prior to the WOD. Performance on each WOD is often scored and/or ranked to encourage competition and to track individual progress. Some affiliates offer additional classes, such as Olympic weightlifting, which are not centered around a WOD.

The wall walk exercise uses a wall to practice handstands, usually used as skill work to strengthen the shoulder and core in order to improve overhead movements and handstand push-ups.

CrossFit gyms use equipment from multiple disciplines, including barbells, dumbbells, gymnastics rings, pull-up bars, jump ropes, kettlebells, medicine balls, plyo boxes, resistance bands, rowing machines, and various mats. CrossFit is focused on “constantly varied, high-intensity, functional movement,” drawing on categories and exercises such as these: calisthenics, Olympic-style weightlifting, powerlifting, Strongman-type events, plyometrics, body weight exercises, indoor rowing, aerobic exercise, running, and swimming.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CrossFit

How are Introverts?

“Introversion is the state of being predominantly interested in one’s own mental self. Introverts are typically perceived as more reserved or reflective. Some popular psychologists have characterized introverts as people whose energy tends to expand through reflection and dwindle during interaction. This is similar to Jung’s view, although he focused on mental energy rather than physical energy. Few modern conceptions make this distinction.

Introverts often take pleasure in solitary activities such as reading, writing, using computers, hiking, and fishing. The archetypal artist, writer, sculptor, scientist, engineer, composer, and inventor are all highly introverted. An introvert is likely to enjoy time spent alone and find less reward in time spent with large groups of people, though they may enjoy interactions with close friends. Trust is usually an issue of significance: a virtue of utmost importance to introverts is choosing a worthy companion. They prefer to concentrate on a single activity at a time and like to observe situations before they participate, especially observed in developing children and adolescents. They are more analytical before speaking. Introverts are easily overwhelmed by too much stimulation from social gatherings and engagement, introversion having even been defined by some in terms of a preference for a quiet, more minimally stimulating external environment.

Mistaking introversion for shyness is a common error. Introverts prefer solitary to social activities, but do not necessarily fear social encounters like shy people do. Susan Cain argues in Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can’t Stop Talking that modern Western culture misjudges the capabilities of introverted people, leading to a waste of talent, energy, and happiness. Cain describes how society is biased against introverts, and that, with people being taught from childhood that to be sociable is to be happy, introversion is now considered “somewhere between a disappointment and pathology”. In contrast, Cain says that introversion is not a “second-class” trait but that both introverts and extraverts enrich society, with examples including the introverts J. K. Rowling, Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, Mahatma Gandhi, Dr. Seuss, W. B. Yeats, Steven Spielberg and Larry Page.”

 

What Defines You? By Lizzie Velasquez TED talk

Lizzie Velasquez is a brilliant and fantastic 25-year-old lady who was born with a strange syndrome. In her special condition, she can not gain weight at all. During her life, many obstacles have overcome, but she has used them as a ladder to go after her dreams. As far as she´s gone she has achieved some of them and is after more.

Her speech is a motivation to all of those people that see life like a big mountain that they are not able to manage. Watch her incredible story and how she has turned negative into positive even though people attacked her for doing nothing them.

What are Toxic Relationships?

We all need friends, human beings are social. The best of our lives are our friends and the things lived with them. Special cases are when those special toxic friends appear and our life turns not so good. Learn how to recognize those toxic relationships.

  1. Pay attention if your friend is being mean to you.
  2. Friends hat gossip continuously of you.
  3. Constant mockery.
  4. Time spent with your friend.
  5. Always know what a healthy relationship is like.
  6. Your feelings go first always so be careful when you are not feeling okay

Sharon Livington shares her experiences on how to recognize a toxic relationship based on her experience.

What Is Psychotherapy?

Psychotherapy is also known as talk therapy it is a way to help people with mental illness and emotional difficulties. People can improve a lot with this type of treatment, a number of sessions are held in which different topics are talked about. Not only psychologists are trained to give psychotherapies, psychiatrists are also in the same line.

” Psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change and overcome problems in desired ways. Psychotherapy aims to improve an individual’s well-being and mental health, to resolve or mitigate troublesome behaviors, beliefs, compulsions, thoughts, or emotions, and to improve relationships and social skills. Certain psychotherapies are considered evidence-based for treating some diagnosed mental disorders.

There are over a thousand different psychotherapy techniques, some being minor variations, while others are based on very different conceptions of psychology, ethics (how to live) or techniques. Most involve one-to-one sessions, between client and therapist, but some are conducted with groups,  including families. Psychotherapists may be mental health professionals such as psychiatrists, psychologists, clinical social workers, marriage and family therapists, or professional counselors. Psychotherapists may also come from a variety of other backgrounds, and depending on the jurisdiction may be legally regulated, voluntarily regulated or unregulated (and the term itself may be protected or not).

Psychotherapists may be mental health professionals, professionals from other backgrounds trained in a specific therapy, or in some cases non-professionals. Psychiatrists are first trained as physicians. As such, they may prescribe prescription medication. Specialist psychiatric training begins after medical school in psychiatric residencies. Clinical psychologists have specialist doctoral degrees in psychology with clinical and research components. Clinical social workers, mental health, and intellectual disability nurses may have specialized training and practical experience in psychotherapy. Many of the wide variety of training programs and institutional settings are multi-professional. In most countries, professionals doing specialized psychotherapeutic work also require a program of continuing education after the basic degree.

As sensitive and deeply personal topics are often discussed during psychotherapy, therapists are expected, and usually legally bound, to respect client or patient confidentiality. The critical importance of client confidentiality—and the limited circumstances in which it may need to be broken for the protection of clients or others—is enshrined in the regulatory psychotherapeutic organizations’ codes of ethical practice.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychotherapy

What is Moral Luck?

 

“Moral luck describes circumstances whereby a moral agent is assigned moral blame or praise for an action or its consequences even if it is clear that said agent did not have full control over either the action or its consequences. This term, introduced by Bernard Williams, has been developed, along with its significance to a coherent moral theory, by Williams and Thomas Nagel in their respective essays on the subject.

Responsibility and voluntarism

Broadly speaking, human beings tend to correlate, at least intuitively, responsibility and voluntary action. Thus, the most blame is assigned to persons for their actions and the consequences they entail when we have good cause to believe that both:

    the action was performed voluntarily and without outside coercion,

  • the agent understood the full range of the consequences of their decisions and actions, as could have reasonably been foreseen either at or prior to the time that the action was performed.

Conversely, there is a tendency to be much more sympathetic to those who satisfy any of the following conditions:

  • the agent was coerced to perform the action
  • the agent performed the action through accident and without any fault or negligence of their own
  • at the time of their actions, the agent did not know and had no way of knowing, the consequences that their actions would bring

Parenthetically, the above criteria do not correlate exactly with moral praise – while it may be true that one can and should assign a good deal of moral praise to those who had performed a good action, or an action entailing good consequences, completely on their own volition and uncoerced, it is debatable that the same distinction holds for involuntary actions that happened to turn out well or happened to produce good outcomes.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moral_luck

What Is Procrastination?

Procrastination is the act of leaving things to do on another time or day, avoiding in that moment their obligations. Things go wrong when procrastination goes into the last minute and you are still not eager to accomplish an assignment.

“Procrastination is the avoidance of doing a task that needs to be accomplished. Sometimes, procrastination takes place until the “last minute” before a deadline. Procrastination can take hold on any aspect of life—putting off cleaning the stove, repairing a leaky roof, seeing a doctor or dentist, submitting a job report or academic assignment or broaching a stressful issue with a partner. Procrastination can lead to feelings of guilt, inadequacy, depression, and self-doubt.

In a study of academic procrastination from the University of Vermont, published in 1984, 46% of the subjects reported that they “always” or “nearly always” procrastinate writing papers, while approximately 30% reported procrastinating studying for exams and reading weekly assignments (28% by and 30% respectively). Nearly a quarter of the subjects reported that procrastination was a problem for them, regarding the same tasks. However, as many as 65% indicated that they would like to reduce their procrastination when writing papers and approximately 62% indicated the same for studying for exams and 55% for reading weekly assignments.

A 1992 study showed that “52 [percent] of surveyed students indicated having a moderate to high need for help concerning procrastination.” It is estimated that 80–95% of college students engage in procrastination, and approximately 75% consider themselves procrastinators. In a study performed on university students, procrastination was shown to be greater on tasks that were perceived as unpleasant or as impositions than on tasks for Studentwhich the student believed he or she lacked the required skills for accomplishing the task.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Procrastination

Discrimination

Do you think it is OK to discriminate? Do you do it? Is it always wrong or are there cases where it can be acceptable? Today we’re talking through several tricky cases and different philosophical perspectives on this issue. Discrimination has been a problem in human society for as long as we can remember it, but what is it?

Discrimination is the action of a human being to treat others thinking they are less than them. Discrimination can happen because the other person has less money than the other, skin color, religious beliefs etc..

“In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration of or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong rather than on individual attributes. This includes treatment of an individual or group, based on their actual or perceived membership in a certain group or social category, “in a way that is worse than the way people are usually treated”. It involves the group’s initial reaction or interaction going on to influence the individual’s actual behavior towards the group leader or the group, restricting members of one group from opportunities or privileges that are available to another group, leading to the exclusion of the individual or entities based on logical or irrational decision making.

Discriminatory traditions, policies, ideas, practices, and laws exist in many countries and institutions in every part of the world, including in territories where discrimination is generally looked down upon. In some places, controversial attempts such as quotas have been used to benefit those believed to be current or past victims of discrimination—but have sometimes been called reverse discrimination. In the US, a government policy known as affirmative action was instituted to encourage employers and universities to seek out and accept groups such as African Americans and women, who have been subject to discrimination for a long time.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discrimination

 

How to Finish Homework FAST?

Homework assignments usually take forever… but they don’t have to. Today, we’ll explore a completely harmless technique that involves using time travel to steal completed homework from your future self.

  • It is important that when you are doing homework you focus on the exercise you know how to do and leave the difficult ones for last. This way you will not lose time trying to solve something meanwhile the rest of exercises are stuck.
  • Our mind works from the focused mode and the diffused mode,……watch the video and learn more with the expert of mind working concentration…

What Is Psychotherapy?

Psychotherapy is a profession of a therapist, it involves a specific set of skills and scientifically defined processes that aim to improve a person’s life. This is a great video on the subject.

“Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change and overcome problems in desired ways. Psychotherapy aims to improve an individual’s well-being and mental health, to resolve or mitigate troublesome behaviors, beliefs, compulsions, thoughts, or emotions, and to improve relationships and social skills. Certain psychotherapies are considered evidence-based for treating some diagnosed mental disorders.

There are over a thousand different psychotherapy techniques, some being minor variations, while others are based on very different conceptions of psychology, ethics (how to live) or techniques. Most involve one-to-one sessions, between client and therapist, but some are conducted with groups,[1] including families. Psychotherapists may be mental health professionals such as psychiatrists, psychologists, clinical social workers, marriage and family therapists, or professional counselors. Psychotherapists may also come from a variety of other backgrounds, and depending on the jurisdiction may be legally regulated, voluntarily regulated or unregulated (and the term itself may be protected or not).” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychotherapy

“In almost all countries and communities around the world, there is one central (usually unvoiced) suspicion that arises whenever someone lets slip that they are ‘having therapy’: they are crazy.
Getting therapeutic help should – ideally – be an ordinary and wholly unsurprising thing, like getting a haircut or going to the dentist, but it remains a very peculiar and frowned-upon recourse. Partly, that’s because the therapeutic industry currently looks deeply unimpressive. Some rather awkward people are employed in it, operating from shabby basement offices, often with dodgy credentials. A rag bag of questionable services gets labeled with this catch-all term. An industry that should be as dominant and financially significant as Audi or Nike struggles for basic recognition. There is plenty of good work being done, but it isn’t overly visible…”

 

How to Take Notes Fast?

Taking notes does not only summarize what you want to remember, it also helps you understand it, adding specific associations between key concepts at a cognitive and neurophysiological level. By “neurophysiological level” we means that neurons physically connect in specific ways. This is a great video and some important quotes I found about taking notes.

“Lectures are a passive form of learning, in which you are talked at rather than actively participating in the academic discussion. Taking good notes from your lectures is essential for getting something out of this method of teaching. You can also get added value from classes by noting down the points raised in group academic discussions; with many points of view being expressed, not all of which you will have thought of yourself, you’ll be armed with plenty of arguments for use in essays.

What’s more, you may think that you’ll remember what was said in a lecture, or what you read in a book, but unless your memory is truly exceptional, you almost certainly won’t remember it in enough detail to write an essay or answer an exam question. Here’s a quick summary of the main ways in which note-taking will benefit you:

– Notes are there to jog your memory of what was said in a lecture or class.
– Taking notes also helps you engage more with what’s being said because you have to focus your attention in order to select the most important points.
– By being actively engaged in this way, you’re more likely to absorb relevant information, get a deeper understanding of the topic, and you’ll find it easier to remember what you’ve learned.
– Your notes will come in handy later on, when you may need them for writing essays or revising for exams.
– Taking notes also stops your mind from wandering.” https://www.oxford-royale.co.uk/articles/student-life-easier-read-faster-notes-absorb-information-time.html

How To Improve on Focus and Concentration?

Have you ever noticed how easy it is to get distracted while studying – even when you know you really don’t have time for Facebook, Snapchat, Cookie Clicker, or whatever else is calling you?
It’s been said that the greatest power of the human mind is its ability to focus on one thing for an extended period of time. If you’ve ever held a magnifying glass in the sun, you know how scattered sunlight can be focused to start a fire. Imagine if you could concentrate your brain power into one bright beam and focus it like a laser on whatever you wish to accomplish. But most of us struggle to concentrate. And when you can’t concentrate, everything you do is harder and takes longer than you’d like. You may be looking to improve your concentration to perform better at work, to ace your exams, to increase reading comprehension, or simply to make everyday life easier. If you can’t focus, you may think that’s just the way your brain works and that there’s not much you can do about it. But anyone can develop their ability to concentrate. There are skills you can learn and things you can do to allow your brain to focus better.” https://bebrainfit.com/improve-concentration-focus/

How to OVERCOME your FEAR?

As human beings, we all have different types of fears. The key to live in peace goes over them. In this article, we are going to give you some tips on how to help you face your fears.

“1. Take time out

It’s impossible to think clearly when you’re flooded with fear or anxiety. The first thing to do is take time out so you can physically calm down.

Distract yourself from the worry for 15 minutes by walking around the block, making a cup of tea or having a bath.

2. Breathe through panic

If you start to get a faster heartbeat or sweating palms, the best thing is not to fight it.

Stay where you are and simply feel the panic without trying to distract yourself. Place the palm of your hand on your stomach and breathe slowly and deeply.

The goal is to help the mind get used to coping with panic, which takes the fear of fear away.

3. Face your fears

Avoiding fears only make them scarier. Whatever your fear, if you face it, it should start to fade. If you panic one day getting into a lift, for example, it’s best to get back into a lift the next day.

4. Imagine the worst

Try imagining the worst thing that can happen – perhaps it’s panicking and having a heart attack. Then try to think yourself into having a heart attack. It’s just not possible. The fear will run away the more you chase it.

5. Look at the evidence

It sometimes helps to challenge fearful thoughts. For example, if you’re scared of getting trapped in a lift and suffocating, ask yourself if you have ever heard of this happening to someone. Ask yourself what you would say to a friend who had a similar fear.

6. Don’t try to be perfect

Life is full of stresses, yet many of us feel that our lives must be perfect. Bad days and setbacks will always happen, and it’s important to remember that life is messy.” https://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/stress-anxiety-depression/Pages/overcoming-fears.aspx

How Do Billionaires THINK?

“Have you observed that your state of mind or your perception is directly proportional to your status in life? What I am trying to say in essence is that if you think like a millionaire, you will become a millionaire and if you decide to increase your thinking capacity to the billionaire level; you will ultimately become a billionaire.” https://www.mytopbusinessideas.com/think-like-a-billionaire/

  1. “A “normal” person is concerned with protecting his ego. When dealing with a problem he doesn’t really understand, he pretends he understands the contributing factors and doesn’t try to find out what anyone else thinks. A person with a billionaire mind asks questions incessantly. He has no ego when it comes to learning. He knows that knowledge is power.
  2. A “normal” person has a consumer mentality. He looks at a hot new product and thinks about how he would like to own one. A person with a billionaire mind has an entrepreneurial mentality. He looks at it and thinks, “How can I produce this or something similar in my own industry?”
  3. A “normal” person is wish-focused. He daydreams about making gobs of money. A person with a billionaire mind is reality-based. He is always analyzing his own success and the success of others and wondering how he could learn from it.
  4. A “normal” person, when confronted with a challenging idea, thinks of all the reasons why it might not work. A person with a billionaire mind sees the potential in it and disregards the problems until he has a clear vision of how it might succeed.
  5. A “normal” person resists change. A person with a billionaire mind embraces it.
  6. A “normal” person accepts the status quo. A person with a billionaire mind is always looking to make things – even good things – better.
  7. A “normal” person reacts. A person with a billionaire mind is proactive.
  8. A “normal” person looks at a successful business owner and thinks, “That guy’s lucky.” Or “That guy’s a shyster.” A person with a billionaire mind thinks, “What’s his secret?” And, “How can I do that?”

Start by being humble and asking questions.

Do this until it becomes a habit!!!” https://www.earlytorise.com/how-to-think-like-a-billionaire-2/

“I DON’T Do What WALL STREET Tells Me!” – Warren Buffett

“Warren Edward Buffett (/ˈbʌfɪt/; born August 30, 1930) is an American business magnate, investor, philanthropist and the Chief Executive Officer, President, and Chairman of Berkshire Hathaway. He is considered by some to be one of the most successful investors in the world, and as of August 2017 is the second wealthiest person in the United States, and the fourth wealthiest in the world, with a total net worth of $76.9 billion.

Born in Omaha, Buffett developed an interest in business and investing in his youth, eventually entering the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania in 1947 before transferring and graduating from University of Nebraska–Lincoln at the age of 19. Buffett went on to enroll and graduate from Columbia University where he learned and eventually molded his investment philosophy around a concept pioneered by Benjamin Graham–value investing. He attended New York Institute of Finance to specialize his economics background and soon after began various business partnerships, including one with Graham. After meeting Charlie Munger, Buffett created the Buffett Partnership. His firm would eventually acquire a textile manufacturing firm called Berkshire Hathaway and assume its name to create a diversified holding company.

Buffett has been the chairman and largest shareholder of Berkshire Hathaway since 1970, and his business exploits have had him referred to as the “Wizard”, “Oracle” or “Sage” of Omaha by global media outlets. He is noted for his adherence to value investing and for his personal frugality despite his immense wealth.

Buffett is a notable philanthropist, having pledged to give away 99 percent of his fortune to philanthropic causes, primarily via the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. In 2009, with Bill Gates and Mark Zuckerberg, Warren founded The Giving Pledge, whereby billionaires pledge to give away at least half of their fortunes.

He is also active in contributing to political causes, has endorsed Democratic candidate Hillary Clinton in the 2016 U.S. presidential election; he has publicly opposed the policies, actions, and statements of the current U.S. president, Donald Trump.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warren_Buffett

How to Gain CONFIDENCE?

“Self-confident people are admired by others and inspire confidence in others. They face their fears head-on and tend to be risk takers. They know that no matter what obstacles come their way, they have the ability to get past them. Self-confident people tend to see their lives in a positive light even when things aren’t going so well, and they are typically satisfied with and respect themselves.

Wouldn’t it be amazing to have this kind of self-confidence, every day of the week? Guess what? You can.

“Low self-confidence isn’t a life sentence. Self-confidence can be learned, practiced, and mastered–just like any other skill. Once you master it, everything in your life will change for the better.” –Barrie Davenport

It comes down to one simple question: If you don’t believe in yourself, how do you expect anybody else to?

Try some of the tips listed below. Don’t just read them and put them on the back burner. Really begin to practice them daily, beginning today. You might have to fake it at first and merely appear to be self-confident, but eventually, you will begin to feel the foundation of self-confidence grow within you. With some time and practice (this is not an overnight phenomenon), you too can be a self-confident person, both inside and out, whom others admire and say “Yes!” to.

1. Stay away from negativity and bring on the positivity

2. Change your body language and image

3. Don’t accept failure and get rid of the negative voices in your head

4. Be prepared

5. For tough times, when all else fails: Create a great list”  https://www.inc.com/peter-economy/5-powerful-ways-to-boost-your-confidence.html

“Don’t CARE What People THINK!”

“Let’s jump into the seven-step guide to not giving a damn about what others think, and live the life you want.

1. The negative comments someone makes is about them, and not you.

When I started this website I was rapidly introduced to the craziness that can happen on the internet. People posted cruel, and false, comments about me on forums. I was, and still am, criticized for many things regarding the way I look. To some people, I’m too big, to others too small, and there was a debate on a forum where people were trying to guess “what was wrong with my body” because I don’t post pictures of me in bikinis or revealing clothing. It was shocking and overwhelming. Why would people who don’t even know me feel compelled to be so cruel?

But a couple years ago I saw everything clearly. The people who go out of their way to make hateful comments, usually under an alias, must have a pretty crappy life. Why would someone who is happy or building a worthwhile life take the time to do nothing more than being hateful?

That’s when I realized the hateful comments I receive are a reflection on the commenter, and not on me. It’s just like high school, but with (somewhat) grown-ups and the power of anonymity.

It’s terribly sad that some people have nothing better to do with their time than trying to tear others down.

Now when I receive unconstructive, pure hateful comments, I view the commenter differently than I used to. I no longer get upset, and I certainly don’t take their unwelcome opinion to heart. I take pity on whoever is choosing to spend their limited time on this earth flinging bile toward people they don’t even know. It’s unfortunate that some people have nothing better to do than try to tear others down.

2. Be true to yourself.

Yes, this is almost painfully cliche, but it’s crucial. It was a valuable lesson I didn’t learn until my early 20s.

As a personal example, I took a risk creating this website and sharing my personal experiences, such as my battle with binge eating and disordered eating habits.

My goal is, to be honest, unrestrained, and as transparent as possible on the website and podcast because that’s the only way to truly connect with people. Some call this crazy. I call it following a passion that was in my heart to share my story and, hopefully, help people by doing so.

Once I finally stopped caring so much about what other people thought and followed my heart, my life got significantly better. Never underestimate the beautiful power and freedom that washes over you when you commit to being true to yourself.

3. This is your one life. There are no do-overs.

My spouse is a physical therapist at a nursing home and she sees death on a near daily basis and has the opportunity to learn from those who are willing to share their life lessons. The most frequent comment has been something along the lines of, “I wish I would have chosen to be happy”.

All of our stories will end the same. Death is inevitable. As uncomfortable as it may be to acknowledge the fact that we will all die, it can also be liberating.

When you can put things into perspective and realize that we only get one life, it makes it easier to stop caring so much about what other people think and be true to yourself.

4. Think, really think, about the absolute worst case scenario.

What intimidates you? What’s holding you back from doing the things you want to do?

For example, I’ve had numerous women tell me they’re intimidated to lift weights at the gym because it’s full of loud, grunting men. And others say, “There are no women back there; they all participate in group classes”.

Ask yourself this question: What is the absolute worst thing that will happen if you do [insert whatever it is you want to do]?

Sticking with the weight lifting room example, you may get an odd look or two. You may have to stand beside some smelly men. If your gym is filled with women who like to gossip, someone may say something about you.

And is that worst case scenario really that bad? No . . . no, it’s not.

An amazing, determined woman received an ignorant comment from a personal trainer when he said, “There’s another one who will break our equipment” because she was 350+ pounds. But this lady didn’t give up and lost 250 pounds despite the comment of a horrible person. You can find her story here.

That story proves what we know is true: some people are ignorant assholes. The solution is simple: screw what other people think.

And here’s the REAL question we should be asking:

What is the worst thing that will happen if we don’t do the things that make us happy because we’re concerned with what other people will say/think?

In short: we won’t do the things that make us happy, and we won’t live life to the fullest. How sad is that? I know, because I’ve done it in the past. I’ve held myself back from doing the things I wanted, all because I was too concerned with what others would think and I missed out on many opportunities as a result. Hell, I spent almost two decades trying to force myself to be attracted to men because where I come from, being gay is unacceptable.

The next time you’re hesitant to do something or take a risk because you’re afraid of what other people will think, stop and ask yourself, “What’s the worst case scenario if I do this?” More than likely it’s not that bad. And I can almost guarantee you’ll be worse off if you do/don’t do things because you’re more concerned with what others will think.

“I’d rather look back on life and say ‘I can’t believe I did that’ than ‘I wish I did that’.”

-Richard Branson

5. Remove sources of negativity, immediately.

Purge your life of negative, toxic people and resources. If your coworkers have a knack for starting drama, avoid them. If your circle of friends has a tendency to tear you down, then separate yourself and look elsewhere.

If you have a public life on the internet or have trouble with cyber bullying and can’t (yet) laugh off the terrible comments people say about you, for the love of everything stop reading the comments or remove yourself from the situation! You can’t stop people from being hateful, but you can choose to ignore them and do something meaningful with your time instead.

I once made the mistake of reading comments about me on a forum, and I was utterly shocked by some of the comments. I can easily shrug off 99% of the cruel, ridiculous comments people make, but I’m not bullet proof. The foolproof solution is to simply avoid it all together.

Instead of reveling over comments, I ignore them. I keep doing the work that makes me happy. I continue to follow my passion. I choose to make positive, productive, fulfilling decisions with my time.

You should do the same.

Avoid people and resources (and social media, if necessary) that are negative.

6. Trust a few opinions, but forget the rest.

There’s freedom in being true to yourself and not caring about what other people think. However, it is important to trust a select few to share their opinions with you, or people you can go to when you need to talk.

Have a few close people you can confide in; people who you know have your best interest at heart.

Personally, I can count on one hand the number of people’s opinions in my life that has an effect on me. And what about other people, or total strangers who feel the need to tell me what they think about me, my body, and my life? Pffft. They don’t matter.

7. Some people are going to dislike you, and there’s nothing you can do about it.

Don’t waste your time trying to get everyone to like you, because it’s impossible.

Instead of worrying about who doesn’t like you, focus on being a better person for those who do. Spend your time and energy living an awesome life and using your talents, gifts, and abilities to make the world and people around you better.

Let other people like you not because of who you’re trying to be, but because of who you genuinely are. Or, as I like to say …

I’d rather be hated for who I truly am than loved for something I’m pretending to be.

Apply these seven tips and you’ll be on your way to not caring what other people think and living a more awesome life.

Ready, Aim, Don’t Care What They Think

Are the tips above easier said than done? Perhaps, but that doesn’t mean it’s impossible. Just like anything else in life you want to master, it will require consistent practice. In the same way, Lifting Like a Girl takes some time to achieve results, you’ll also have to consistently put the above tips to practice if you want to stop caring about what other people think and live the life you want.

Remember, what’s worse: Having to deal with unwelcome comments from doing the things you want, or not living your life to the fullest?

Finally, please practice this with other people too. If you find yourself judging or gossiping about others, please stop. Let’s focus instead on becoming the best versions of ourselves and encourage others to do the same, even if it’s a different way than us.” https://www.niashanks.com/guide-not-care-what-people-think/

How to GET 1 MILLION YouTube Subscribers?

“Attractiveness is a key component for a lot of YouTubers, and you’ll automatically have a head start if you’re relatively attractive.

This is particularly true of most male vloggers due to their viewing demographic. Young male and female vloggers generally draw a young, female audience, and you can see why looks play a role.

As vapid as this is, do you really think popular British vloggers Dan and Phil or Joey Graceffa would be as successful if they were unattractive?

For them, how they look to their female audience is extremely important, but that doesn’t mean you can’t succeed if you’re less attractive. It just means that good-looking creators have a leg-up on the competition.

High Production Value

If you can’t beat them with your looks, then your content needs to blow people away.

YouTube is trying to compete with traditional media, so the more it looks like TV, the more others will draw towards it (YouTube Red, YouTube TV).

This means that content with better production value, better characters, and the better story will entice traditional audiences. There’s no guarantee that it’ll attract viewers, but you’ll increase your odds of getting noticed.

For many YouTubers, value comes with time as most can’t afford to produce top-notch content when starting out. One of the today’s high-quality content channels, Smosh, started out like many YouTubers with cheap-looking videos, however, their writing made it intriguing.

So if you can’t make your content look good, then at least make the ideas interesting.

The Millennial Generation

I’ve noticed a trend that the younger a YouTuber is, the more likely they’ll obtain greater views and subscribers.

This is tied to good looks but more or less reflects on youth culture. YouTube is geared towards younger demographics, which is why YouTubers need to be aware of daily digital and social media trends.

The older you are, the less likely you’ll be caught up on these trends, and it’ll show when your numbers fail to increase.

On YouTube, there is an audience for everyone, but if you really want to aim high, then your age can and will make the difference if you’re a YouTuber.

Anyone above age 35 may struggle to connect with their audience.”https://turbofuture.com/internet/YouTubes-10-ways-to-hit-one-million-subscribers

Can Music Really Help You Study More Effectively?

As a student, I almost always listened to music during studying and homework sessions. But does music actually help you focus and study more effectively – or is it just a distraction?

“Whatever your preference, I’m sure you love listening to your favorite artists every chance you get— maybe even while you study. Is playing your favorite song an easy way to make that homework bearable, or are you hurting your performance?

Previous research has found numerous benefits to listening to music before performing a task– it improves attention, memory, and even mental math ability. It has also been found to alleviate depression and anxiety.

However, the more realistic scenario is that students will study or do homework while playing “background music.” A recent study at the University of Wales looked at how background music affects students’ ability to complete a serial recall (remembering items in a specific order) test.

Students were given a serial recall test in five different scenarios–

1. A quiet environment

2. With “steady state” speech. This means a single word (in this case, “three”) was repeated for the duration of the test

3. With “changing state” speech. This means a variety of words (in this case, random digits from 1-9) were played during the test

4. With “liked” music, meaning a song of the students choice (such as Lady Gaga, Rihanna, or Arcade Fire). Students brought in their own music, the only requirement was that it had to have vocals

5. With “disliked” music, which in this case was a metal song called “Thrashers” by Death Angel (all students in the study disliked metal)

The researchers expected that the changing state speech would have the most detrimental effect on the students’ performance. Think about it like this– changing state is like having to do your homework while someone else is talking. Steady state is more like repetitive background noise (a noisy heater, for example), which is easier to tune out.” https://www.mindthesciencegap.org/2012/10/08/does-music-help-you-study/

How To Earn Awesome Grades (Studying Less)?

We all want good grades but you have to work hard in order to earn them. A few tips so you can achieve those dreamed awesome grades.

  1. Attend every class: If you want good grades in college, you must attend every class, not almost every class. The importance of regular class attendance cannot be overemphasized. When you miss classes, you miss lectures, notes, discussions, explanations, and assignments.
  2. Be organized
  • Use a student planner: take this to each class and record all assignments. Also use your planner to keep track of tests and quizzes, activities and appointments.

  • Break down assignments: large assignments are more manageable if you break them down into smaller parts. Completing these smaller portions over a longer period of time will allow you more time to focus.

  • Use three-ring binders for class notes: this type of note book works well because handouts can easily be inserted and if you end up missing a class you can also insert a copy of someone else’s notes where they belong.

  • Organize and save computer work: make sure that all your work on the computer is saved and saved often, and that you have back up files.

  • Keep returned papers, quizzes, and tests: Have different colored folders for each class to keep all returned materials. Old tests can be helpful study guides in the future.

  • Maintain a neat and organized study area: Set up an area or desk with everything you will need and keep this area clean.

    3.  Manage your time well: with good time management, you have more free time, less stress and a feeling that you are in control.

  • Don’t overextend yourself

  • Be organized: see number 2 above!

  • Schedule 90-minute study sessions: set a specific time to get your studying done and make sure you will not be interrupted. During these study sessions, don’t do anything else but study!

    4. Be Successful in Class: you will enjoy college more and you will get higher grades if you can follow these tips!

    • Do every class assignment: think of homework not as something you should do, but as something you must do. Complete homework on a regular basis so that you don’t fall behind.

    • Sit in the front row when possible: research shows that sitting in the front row is directly related to getting higher grades.” https://www.umassd.edu/dss/resources/students/classroomstrategies/howtogetgoodgrades/

What happens in your brain when you pay attention?

Attention isn’t just about what we focus on — it’s also about what our brains filter out. By investigating patterns in the brain as people try to focus, computational neuroscientist Mehdi Ordikhani-Seyedlar hopes to build computer models that can be used to treat ADHD and help those who have lost the ability to communicate.

“A new study by MIT neuroscientists reveals how the brain achieves this type of focused attention on faces or other objects: A part of the prefrontal cortex known as the inferior frontal junction (IFJ) controls visual processing areas that are tuned to recognize a specific category of objects, the researchers report in the April 10 online edition of Science.

Scientists know much less about this type of attention, known as object-based attention, than spatial attention, which involves focusing on what’s happening in a particular location. However, the new findings suggest that these two types of attention have similar mechanisms involving related brain regions, says Robert Desimone, the Doris and Don Berkey Professor of Neuroscience, director of MIT’s McGovern Institute for Brain Research, and senior author of the paper.

“The interactions are surprisingly similar to those seen in spatial attention,” Desimone says. “It seems like it’s a parallel process involving different areas.”

In both cases, the prefrontal cortex — the control center for most cognitive functions — appears to take charge of the brain’s attention and control relevant parts of the visual cortex, which receives sensory input. For spatial attention, that involves regions of the visual cortex that map to a particular area within the visual field.

In the new study, the researchers found that IFJ coordinates with a brain region that processes faces, known as the fusiform face area (FFA), and a region that interprets information about places, known as the parahippocampal place area (PPA). The FFA and PPA were first identified in the human cortex by Nancy Kanwisher, the Walter A. Rosenblith Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience at MIT. ” https://news.mit.edu/2014/how-brain-pays-attention

How To Be A Good Listener?

“Listening is something we’re very reluctant to do, not because we’re lazy, but because we have never actually been taught how to do it properly, in a way that can be interesting and rewarding for us.

Being a good listener is one of the most important and enchanting life-skills anyone can have. Yet, few of us know how to do it, not because we are evil, but because no one has taught us how and – a related point – few have listened sufficiently well to us. So we come to social life greedy to speak rather than listen, hungry to meet others, but reluctant to hear them. Friendship degenerates into a socialized egoism.

Like most things, the answer lies in education. Our civilization is full of great books on how to speak – Cicero’s Orator and Aristotle’s Rhetoric were two of the greatest in the ancient world – but sadly no one has ever written a book called ‘The Listener’. There is a range of things that the good listener is doing that makes it so nice to spend time in their company. ” https://www.thebookoflife.org/how-to-be-a-good-listener/.

“Steps to improve your listening skills.

1. A good listener is attentive. They make good eye contact, don’t interrupt what the other person is saying and show an interest in what is being communicated. There’s always something incredible you can hear in anyone’s story.

2. A good listener does not look over the shoulder of the person that’s speaking, waiting for someone more interesting to come along.

3. A good listener does not check their phone or tablet in the middle of a conversation when someone is sharing with them.

4. A good listener is not waiting for their chance to get a word in, treating the ‘period of listening’ as a pause in their ‘monologue.’ Being so focused on trying to get one’s view over is insensitive and misses the real value in the conversation.

5. A good listener uses positive body language; leaning forward and showing an enthusiastic, relaxed nature. They don’t fidget, cross arms, look elsewhere or express inappropriate shock or disbelief at what’s shared.

6. A good listener does not hurry somebody but asks good questions to guide the sharing. They guide and help shape what’s being shared, but if the other person feels cut off or squashed they’ve failed.

7. A good listener does not approach a conversation with prejudice, expecting to know what’s going to come out of the speaker’s lips. They don’t listen to a pre-formed opinion but attempt to have an open mind to what’s being communicated. It’s amazing how much time is wasted with the belief that people understand what someone means without taking the effort and time to listen.

8. A good listener cares. They show empathy for what the other person has to say. It’s genuine, authentic and comes from a place of truthful concern.

9. A good listener identifies areas of agreement with the speaker whilst avoiding the cliché statement: “I know exactly how you feel.” Because you don’t. It ends up sounding insensitive, trite or self-centered. Everyone loves to be truly understood. No one likes to be patronized.” https://calebstorkey.com/listening-skills-11-steps-to-become-a-good-listener/

Why We Are All Considered Addicts?

We tend to imagine that we can only become addicted to a few sorts of things. But real addiction is about using something, anything, to keep our real emotions, fears, and hopes at bay. There are many more addicts among us than we think.

Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli, despite adverse consequences. Despite the involvement of a number of psychosocial factors, a biological process – one which is induced by repeated exposure to an addictive stimulus – is the core pathology that drives the development and maintenance of an addiction. The two properties that characterize all addictive stimuli are that they are reinforcing (i.e., they increase the likelihood that a person will seek repeated exposure to them) and intrinsically rewarding (i.e., they are perceived as being inherently positive, desirable, and pleasurable).” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Addiction

“We operate with some stock images of the addict: a person with a heroin needle in a park, or who nurses a bottle of gin in a paper bag at nine in the morning or who sneaks off at every opportunity to light up another cylinder of marijuana.

However dramatic and tragic such cases of addiction might be, they are simultaneously hugely reassuring to most of us – because they locate the addict far from ordinary experience, somewhere off-stage, in the land of semi-criminality and outright breakdown…

 

 

Human Psychological Development

A human’s psychosocial development from baby to adulthood is the result of physical characteristics and environmental ones; their beliefs, attitudes and the way they act. In other words, not just determined by the genetics but also from nurture. Nurture means how and where you were raised, the people, things and all in your external stimulus as part of your childhood and how this impacts who you are. Personality develops through socialization we have to interact with other humans in order to gain skills and be humans!

Different psychologists created various ways of observing human conduct and created different, mostly mutually inclusive theories that divided psychological development into parts and stages, given the abstract physical-mental mix that defines our own self-observation, Psychology and Sociology (And Económics and Marketing for that matter) are subjects that aren’t totally biological and physical, not totally humanistic either, in other words not limited to the intelligible but non-physical world of the mind, a wonderful dichotomy that projects the true inquisitorial nature of our ever searching nature. This great video from the Crash Course Project by my favorite Green Brothers and in this case, a beautiful and funny friendly geeky chick gives us a tour across “The Role of Nature and Nurture”, The Evils of Social Isolation, and 5 theories of development: Freud’s Psychodynamic theory, Piaget’s Four Stages of Cognitive Development, Kohlberg and Gilligangs Theories of Moral Development, MEads Theory of Self, Erik Erikson’s Stages of Life,

What is Psilocybin?

Psilocybin is a naturally occurring psychedelic compound. There are more than 180 species of mushrooms that contain psilocybin, or its derivative psilocin. Psilocybin mushrooms have a long history of use in Mesoamerica in spiritual and religious rituals, and are currently one of the most popular recreational psychedelics in the United States and Europe.

Psilocybin mushrooms can be therapeutic for cluster headaches, obsessive-compulsive disorders, anxiety, depression, and addiction.

Magic mushrooms are illegal and categorized as a Schedule I controlled substance in the United States, but there are human studies allowed in special cases”

Top 5 Popular Myths About Drug Use

“Whether its Weed, Crack Cocaine, Meth, MDMA, PCP, or szechwan dipping sauce, all these addictive substances have a few misconceptions surrounding them. In today’s instalment we’re asking questions like; Do crack babies exist? Does PCP make you violent and powerful? Does drinking vinegar help you pass a drug test? are natural drugs safe? is marijuana a gateway drug? and more! So if you DARE to make any claims about Drugs without doing your research – you’re about to get stoned by the truth…that was awful.”