EthnoEcology

Ethnoecology is the scientific study of how different groups of people living in different locations understand the ecosystems around them, and their relationships with surrounding environments.

It seeks valid, reliable understanding of how we as humans have interacted with the environment and how these intricate relationships have been sustained over time.[1]

The “ethno” (see ethnology) prefix in ethnoecology indicates a localized study of a people, and in conjunction with ecology, signifies people’s understanding and experience of environments around them. Ecology is the study of the interactions between living organisms and their environment; enthnoecology applies a human focused approach to this subject.[2] The development of the field lies in applying indigenous knowledge of botany and placing it in a global context.

What is Economic History?

Economic history is the study of economic events in the past. A series of different methods are used to analyze these events including statistical and historical methods. Here is an example of an extremely controversial “historical” account on economic events of the recent past:

 

Development of economic history science

” In Germany in the late 19th century, scholars in a number of universities, led by Gustav von Schmoller, developed the historical school of economic history. It ignored quantitative and mathematical approaches. Historical approach dominated German and French scholarship for most of the 20th century. The approach was spread to Great Britain by William Ashley, 1860–1927, and dominated British economic history for much of the 20th century. Britain’s first professor in the subject was George Unwin at the University of Manchester). In France, economic history was heavily influenced by the Annales School from the early 20th century to the present. It exerts a worldwide influence through its Journal Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales.

Treating economic history as a discrete academic discipline has been a contentious issue for many years. Academics at the London School of Economics and the University of Cambridge had numerous disputes over the separation of economics and economic history in the interwar era. Cambridge economists believed that pure economics involved a component of economic history and that the two were inseparably entangled. Those at the LSE believed that economic history warranted its own courses, research agenda, and academic chair separated from mainstream economics.

In the initial period of the subject’s development, the LSE position of separating economic history from economics won out. Many universities in the UK developed independent programmes in economic history rooted in the LSE model. Indeed, the Economic History Society had its inauguration at LSE in 1926 and the University of Cambridge eventually established its own economic history programme. However, the past twenty years have witnessed the widespread closure of these separate programmes in the UK and the integration of the discipline into either history or economics departments. Only the LSE retains a separate economic history department and stand-alone undergraduate and graduate programme in economic history. Cambridge, Glasgow, the LSE, and Oxford together train the vast majority of economic historians coming through the British higher education system today.

United States

Meanwhile, in the US, the field of economic history has in recent decades been largely subsumed into other fields of economics and is seen as a form of applied economics. As a consequence, there are no specialist economic history graduate programs at any universities anywhere in the country. Economic history remains as a special field component of regular economics or history Ph.D. programs in universities including at University of California, Berkeley, Harvard University, Northwestern University and Yale University.” Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_history

What is Economic Geography?

Economic Geography is the study of the distribution of economic activities it is a sub field of geography. It also does the location of industries, economic agglomerations and even the culture environment interaction and globalization is studied by this science.

History

” Some of the first traces of the study of spatial aspects of economic activities can be found in seven Chinese maps of the State of Qin dating to the 4th century BC. Ancient writings can be attributed to the Greek geographer Strabo’s Geographika compiled almost 2000 years ago. As the science of cartography developed, geographers illuminated many aspects used today in the field; maps created by different European powers described the resources likely to be found in American, African, and Asian territories. The earliest travel journals included descriptions of the native peoples, the climate, the landscape, and the productivity of various locations. These early accounts encouraged the development of transcontinental trade patterns and ushered in the era of mercantilism.

World War II contributed to the popularization of geographical knowledge generally, and post-war economic recovery and development contributed to the growth of economic geography as a discipline. During environmental determinism’s time of popularity, Ellsworth Huntington and his theory of climatic determinism, while later greatly criticized, notably influenced the field. Valuable contributions also came from location theorists such as Johann Heinrich von Thünen or Alfred Weber. Other influential theories include Walter Christaller’s Central place theory, the theory of core and periphery.

Fred K. Schaefer’s article “Exceptionalism in geography: A Methodological Examination”, published in the American journal Annals of the Association of American Geographers, and his critique of regionalism, made a large impact on the field: the article became a rallying point for the younger generation of economic geographers who were intent on reinventing the discipline as a science, and quantitative methods began to prevail in research. Well-known economic geographers of this period include William Garrison, Brian Berry, Waldo Tobler, Peter Haggett and William Bunge.

Contemporary economic geographers tend to specialize in areas such as location theory and spatial analysis (with the help of geographic information systems), market research, geography of transportation, real estate price evaluation, regional and global development, planning, Internet geography, innovation, social networks.” Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_geography

What are Consumer Economics?

Consumer economics  analyses microeconomic behaviors of individuals, families and consumers. In the past it was known as home economics.

History

” The traditional economists had little interest in analyzing family units. When economic theory was insufficient to explain the phenomenon of women starting to enter the labor force “en masse”, consumer economics both gained attention and received important contributions from economic theorists. Major theoretical cornerstones include Gary Becker’s Household Production Model, time allocation models and Stigler’s information search theory.

Consumer economics concludes the family-unit economists were strongly influenced by the most recent “consumer era”; which was the “Modern Consumer Movement” of the 1970s. The connection between Consumer Economics and consumer-related politics has been overt, although the strength of the connection varies between Universities and individuals.

Many facets of consumer economics are measured regularly by the Federal Reserve System and the Bureau of Economic Analysis and are available for the public. A number of indicators are published regularly from these and other academic sources, such as personal income, total household debt, and the Consumer Leverage Ratio.

The effect of consumer economics on the economy is another field of study in economics. It is called the “consumer economy”, a term known from Hazlitt’s Economics in One Lesson.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consumer_economics

What a find of a video!!

Computational Economics? Quick Summary.

Computational economics is a discipline that is related to computer science, economics and management. Computational models are developed to predict and understand economic dynamics.

” Computational economics uses computer-based economic modeling for the solution of analytically and statistically formulated economic problems. A research program, to that end, is agent-based computational economics (ACE), the computational study of economic processes, including whole economies, as dynamic systems of interacting agents. As such, it is an economic adaptation of the complex adaptive systems paradigm. Here the “agent” refers to “computational objects modeled as interacting according to rules,” not real people. Agents can represent social, biological, and/or physical entities. The theoretical assumption of mathematical optimization by agents in equilibrium is replaced by the less restrictive postulate of agents with bounded rationality adapting to market forces, including game-theoretical contexts. Starting from initial conditions determined by the modeler, an ACE model develops forward through time has driven solely by agent interactions. The ultimate scientific objective of the method is “to … test theoretical findings against real-world data in ways that permit empirically supported theories to cumulate over time, with each researcher’s work building appropriately on the work that has gone before.”

Computational solution tools include for example software for carrying out various matrix operations (e.g. matrix inversion) and for solving systems of linear and nonlinear equations. For a repository of public-domain computational solution tools.

The following journals specialize in computational economics: ACM Transactions on Economics and ComputationComputational EconomicsJournal of Applied EconometricsJournal of Economic Dynamics and Control, and the Journal of Economic Interaction and Coordination.”  Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computational_economics

What is Complexity Economics?

Complexity economics is basically the application of complexity science to economics. It sees economics not as a system in equilibrium but one that is under constant construction.

Measures used in Complexity Economics

Economic complexity index

Harvard economist Ricardo Hausmann and MIT physicist Cesar A. Hidalgo introduced a spectral method to measure the complexity of a country’s economy by inferring it from the structure of the network connecting countries to the products that they export. The measure combines information of a country’s diversity, which is positively correlated with a country’s productive knowledge, with measures of a product ubiquity (number of countries that produce or export the product). This concept, known as the “Product Space”, has been further developed by MIT’s Observatory of Economic Complexity, and in The Atlas of Economic Complexity in 2011.

Relevance

The economic complexity index (ECI) introduced by Hausmann and Hidalgo is highly predictive of future GDP per capita growth. In Hausmann, Hidalgo et al., the authors show that the List of countries by future GDP (based on ECI) estimates ability of the ECI to predict future GDP per capita growth is between 5 times and 20 times larger than the World Bank’s measure of governance, the World Economic Forum’s (WEF) Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) and standard measures of human capital, such as years of schooling and cognitive ability.

Metrics for country fitness and product complexity

Pietronero and collaborators have recently proposed a different approach. These metrics are defined as the fixed point of the non-linear iterative map. Differently, from the linear algorithm giving rise to the ECI, this non-linearity is a key point to properly deal with the nested structure of the data. The authors of this alternative formula claim it has several advantages:

  • Consistency with the empirical evidence from the export country-product matrix that diversification plays a crucial role in the assessment of the competitiveness of countries. The metrics for countries proposed by Pietronero is indeed extensive with respect to the number of products.
  • Non-linear coupling between fitness and complexity required by the nested structure of the country-product matrix. The nested structure implies that the information on the complexity of a product must be bounded by the producers with the lowest fitness.
  • Broad and Pareto-like distribution of the metrics.
  • Each iteration of the method refines information, does not change the meaning of the iterated variables and does not shrink information.

The metrics for country fitness and product complexity have been used in a report of the Boston Consulting Group on Sweden growth and development perspectives.” Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Complexity_economics

What are Behavioral Economics?

Behavioral economics studies the effects that emotional, social and cognitive factors cause in the economy. They change variables in different scenes in order to determine generally how these factors affect the economy.

” Behavioral economics is primarily concerned with the bounds of rationality of economic agents. Behavioral models typically integrate insights from psychology, neuroscience, and microeconomic theory; in so doing, these behavioral models cover a range of concepts, methods, and fields.

The study of behavioral economics includes how market decisions are made and the mechanisms that drive public choice. The use of the term “behavioral economics” in U.S. scholarly papers has increased in the past few years, as shown by a recent study.

In 2017, economist Richard Thaler was awarded the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for his contributions to behavioral economics and his pioneering work in establishing that people are predictably irrational in ways that defy economic theory.

Three prevalent themes in behavioral finances:

  • Heuristics: Humans make 95% of their decisions using mental shortcuts or rules of thumb.
  • Framing: The collection of anecdotes and stereotypes that make up the mental emotional filters individuals rely on to understand and respond to events.
  • Market inefficiencies: These include mispricings and non-rational decision making.” Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Behavioral_economics.

Summary of Applied Economics

Applied economics is the application of economic theory and econometrics in certain settings. The ample range of theories where they can be applied is demographic economics, business economics, industrial organization, education economics and monetary economics.

How did the term applied economics originated?

“The origin and meanings of Applied Economics have a long history going back to the writing of Say and Mill. Say wrote about “applying” the “general principles of political economy” to “ascertain the rule of action of any combination of circumstances presented to us.” The full title of Mill’s (1848) work is Principles of Political Economy with Some of Their Applications to Social Philosophy.

J. Keynes discussion

John Neville Keynes was perhaps the first to use the phrase “applied economics”. He noted that the “English School” (John Stuart Mill, John Elliott Cairnes, and Nassau William Senior) believed that political economy was a positive, abstract, deductive science; and that this school made a clear distinction “between political economy itself and its applications to practice” (1917, 12). This School thought that a general body of theory could be established through abstract reasoning – not relying on a wide knowledge of economic facts. From this point of view applying this theory involved making allowances for some of the factors ignored in building the abstract theories. Keynes wrote about applying the political economies hypothetical laws to interpreting and explaining of “concrete industrial facts.” The issue of conceptual distinction between political economy as a science (involving formulating laws which govern the production and distribution of wealth) and political economy as an art (using the laws to tackle practical problems).

Whilst noting the rival view of the historical economists, who believed that the goals being pursued by policy makers and the means to pursue them were an integral part of the science of economics, J.N Keynes believed in the desirability of the “English School’s” distinction between the discovery of principles and their application (1917, 54).

Indeed, it was he who proposed using the phrase “applied economics” instead of “the art of political economy”. Keynes further discussed the uses of the phrases applied political economy and applied economics noting three different uses:

  1. in the sense suggested in the text [in association with the art of political economy];
  2. to designate the application of economic theory to the interpretation and explanation of particular economic phenomena, without any necessary reference however, to the solution of practical questions;
  3. to mark off the more concrete and specialized portions of economic doctrine from those more abstract doctrines that are held to pervade all economic reasoning. (1917, 58–59) and applying theories of the economy on what we have in reality to get a healthy enterprise and business prosperity.” Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Applied_economics

 

What is Anarchist Economics?

Anarchist economics is a set of theories and practices of economics. Anarchists are anti-capitalism which means they believe that capitalism promotes an oppressive system collecting rents and private property, taking profit in exchanges.

Historical items on anarchist economics

“The early English anarchist William Godwin’s views on economics could be summarized as follows: “he envisages the possibility of specialization in the various crafts, which would lead to a man’s following the task for which he had the greatest aptitude, and distributing his surplus products to whoever may need them, receiving what he himself needs other things from the surplus produced by his neighbours, but always on the basis of free distribution, not of exchange. It is evident that, despite his speculations on the future of machinery, Godwin’s ideal society is based on the economics of handcrafts and cultivation.

In Europe, an early anarchist communist was Joseph Déjacque, the first person to describe himself as “libertarian”. Unlike and against Proudhon, he argued that “it is not the product of his or her labor that the worker has a right to, but to the satisfaction of his or her needs, whatever may be their nature.”Returning to New York he was able to serialize his book in his periodical Le Libertaire, Journal du Mouvement social. Published in 27 issues from June 9, 1858, to February 4, 1861, Le Libertaire was the first anarcho-communist journal published in the United States. ” Source:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anarchist_economics

What is Agricultural Economics?

Agricultural economics is one of the applied areas of economics which is focused on optimizing production and distribution of food. Land usage is also a theme that agriculture economics is concerned about its study.

“Agricultural economists have made substantial contributions to research in economics, econometrics, development economics, and environmental economics. Agricultural economics influences food policy, agricultural policy, and environmental policy.

Origins of agricultural economics

” Economics has been defined as the study of resource allocation under scarcity. Agricultural economics, or the application of economic methods to optimizing the decisions made by agricultural producers, grew to prominence around the turn of the 20th century. The field of agricultural economics can be traced out to works on land economics. Henry Charles Taylor was the greatest contributor to the establishment of the Department of Agricultural Economics at Wisconsin in 1909.

Another contributor, 1979 Nobel Economics Prize winner Theodore Schultz, was among the first to examine development economics as a problem related directly to agriculture. Schultz was also instrumental in establishing econometrics as a tool for use in analyzing agricultural economics empirically; he noted in his landmark 1956 article that agricultural supply analysis is rooted in “shifting sand”, implying that it was and is simply not being done correctly.

One scholar summarizes the development of agricultural economics as follows:

“Agricultural economics arose in the late 19th century, combined the theory of the firm with marketing and organization theory, and developed throughout the 20th century largely as an empirical branch of general economics. The discipline was closely linked to empirical applications of mathematical statistics and made early and significant contributions to econometric methods. In the 1960s and afterward, as agricultural sectors in the OECD countries contracted, agricultural economists were drawn to the development problems of poor countries, to the trade and macroeconomic policy implications of agriculture in rich countries, and to a variety of production, consumption, and environmental and resource problems.” Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agricultural_economics

What is Anthropology?

Anthropology science studies all themes related to human beings including past and present elements. Since it is so vast it has divided into various branches to specialize in getting more accurate information.

History of origin of the term anthropology

The term anthropology was first used in Renaissance Germany in the work of Magnus Hundt and Otto Casmann.

Anthropology and many other current fields are the intellectual results of the comparative methods developed in the earlier 19th century. Theorists in such diverse fields as anatomy, linguistics, and Ethnology, making feature-by-feature comparisons of their subject matters, were beginning to suspect that similarities between animals, languages, and folkways were the result of processes or laws unknown to them then. For them, the publication of Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was the epiphany of everything they had begun to suspect. Darwin himself arrived at his conclusions through comparison of species he had seen in agronomy and in the wild.

Darwin and Wallace unveiled evolution in the late 1850s. There was an immediate rush to bring it into the social sciences. Paul Broca in Paris was in the process of breaking away from the Société de Biologie to form the first of the explicitly anthropological societies, the Société d’Anthropologie de Paris, meeting for the first time in Paris in 1859. When he read Darwin, he became an immediate convert to Transformisme, as the French called evolutionism. His definition now became “the study of the human group, considered as a whole, in its details, and in relation to the rest of nature”.” Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthropology

What is Social Anthropology?

Social anthropology is very alike to cultural anthropology with the difference that it includes customs, economic and political organization, gender relations, socialization, and religion. Some of the specializations on social anthropology are medicine anthropology and musicology.

History of the science

” Social anthropology has historical roots in a number of 19th-century disciplines, including ethnology, folklore studies, and Classics, among others. (See History of anthropology.) Its immediate precursor took shape in the work of Edward Burnett Tylor and James George Frazer in the late 19th century and underwent major changes in both method and theory during the period 1890-1920 with a new emphasis on original fieldwork, long-term holistic study of social behavior in natural settings, and the introduction of French and German social theory. Bronislaw Malinowski, one of the most important influences on British social anthropology, emphasized long-term fieldwork in which anthropologists work in the vernacular and immerse themselves in the daily practices of local people. This development was bolstered by Franz Boas’s introduction of cultural relativism arguing that cultures are based on different ideas about the world and can therefore only be properly understood in terms of their own standards and values.

Museums such as the British Museum weren’t the only site of anthropological studies: with the New Imperialism period, starting in the 1870s, zoos became unattended “laboratories”, especially the so-called “ethnological exhibitions” or “Negro villages”. Thus, “savages” from the colonies were displayed, often nudes, in cages, in what has been called “human zoos”. For example, in 1906, Congolese pygmy Ota Benga was put by anthropologist Madison Grant in a cage in the Bronx Zoo, labelled “the missing link” between an orangutan and the “white race” — Grant, a renowned eugenicist, was also the author of The Passing of the Great Race (1916). Such exhibitions were attempts to illustrate and prove in the same movement the validity of scientific racism, which the first formulation may be found in Arthur de Gobineau’s An Essay on the Inequality of Human Races (1853–55). In 1931, the Colonial Exhibition in Paris still displayed Kanaks from New Caledonia in the “indigenous village”; it received 24 million visitors in six months, thus demonstrating the popularity of such “human zoos”.” Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_anthropology

What is Cultural Anthropology?

Cultural anthropology is a branch of anthropology and is focused on cultural variation. The methodology used in this science is rich, based on participant observation. The anthropologist has to be a lot of time on the site of study because of the need of doing surveys and interviews.

” Since humans acquire culture through the learning processes of enculturation and socialization, people living in different places or different circumstances develop different cultures. Anthropologists have also pointed out that through culture people can adapt to their environment in non-genetic ways, so people living in different environments will often have different cultures. Much of anthropological theory has originated in an appreciation of and interest in the tension between the local (particular cultures) and the global (a universal human nature, or the web of connections between people in distinct places/circumstances).

The rise of cultural anthropology took place within the context of the late 19th century when questions regarding which cultures were “primitive” and which were “civilized” occupied the minds of not only Marx and Freud but many others. Colonialism and its processes increasingly brought European thinkers into direct or indirect contact with “primitive others.” The relative status of various humans, some of whom had modern advanced technologies that included engines and telegraphs, while others lacked anything but face-to-face communication techniques and still lived a Paleolithic lifestyle, was of interest to the first generation of cultural anthropologists.” Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_anthropology

What is Linguistic Anthropology?

Linguistic anthropology is the study of how language has influencesocial life. This science started with the need to document endangered languages. During the last century, it has turned directly to aspects of language use and structure. This science also has to do with how language gives shape to communication, gives social identity and makes human beings part of groups, turning language in a cultural identification.

https://embed.ted.com/talks/lang/en/mark_pagel_how_language_transformed_humanity
History of the development of the science

” Alessandro Duranti has noted, three paradigms have emerged over the history of the subdiscipline: the first, now known as “anthropological linguistics,” focuses on the documentation of languages; the second, known as “linguistic anthropology,” engages in theoretical studies of language use; the third, developed over the past two or three decades, studies questions related to other subfields of anthropology with the tools of linguistic inquiry. Though they developed sequentially, all three paradigms are still practiced today.”

 

 

What is Biological Anthropology?

Biological anthropology is also known as physical anthropology. This discipline relates to human beings, behavior, and biological aspect. It also studies the human being and the relatives that include hominin ancestors.

Biological anthropology branches

As a subfield of anthropology, biological anthropology itself is further divided into several branches. All branches are united in their common application of evolutionary theory to understanding human morphology and behavior.

  • Paleoanthropology is the study of fossil evidence for human evolution, mainly using remains from extinct hominin and other primate species to determine the morphological and behavioral changes in the human lineage, as well as the environment in which human evolution occurred.
  • Human biology is an interdisciplinary field of biology, biological anthropology, nutrition, and medicine, which concerns international, population-level perspectives on health, evolution, anatomy, physiology, molecular biology, neuroscience, and genetics.
  • Primatology is the study of non-human primate behavior, morphology, and genetics. Primatologists use phylogenetic methods to infer which traits humans share with other primates and which are human-specific adaptations.
  • Human behavioral ecology is the study of behavioral adaptations (foraging, reproduction, ontogeny) from the evolutionary and ecologic perspectives (see behavioral ecology). It focuses on human adaptive responses (physiological, developmental, genetic) to environmental stresses.
  • Bioarchaeology is the study of past human cultures through examination of human remains recovered in an archaeological context. The examined human remains usually are limited to bones but may include preserved soft tissue. Researchers in bioarchaeology combine the skill sets of human osteology, paleopathology, and archaeology, and often consider the cultural and mortuary context of the remains.
  • Paleopathology is the study of disease in antiquity. This study focuses not only on pathogenic conditions observable in bones or mummified soft tissue, but also on nutritional disorders, variation in stature or morphology of bones over time, evidence of physical trauma, or evidence of occupationally derived biomechanic stress.
  • Forensic anthropology is the application of biological anthropology within a legal setting. Forensic anthropologists often assist law enforcement, coroners, and medical examiners in identifying and analyzing human remains.” source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_anthropology

 

What Is Sustainable Development?

Sustainable development is mostly related to the use of resources without compromising the future generations on not having that resource. The sustainable development goals were defined each one of them has specific targets which are planned to be achieved in 2030.  These goals are applied worldwide countries including rich and poor.

The term sustainable development has been criticized, some people believe that there are more elements to be involved in this sustainable development.

” Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend. The desired result is a state of society where living and conditions and resource use continue to meet human needs without undermining the integrity and stability of the natural systems.

While the modern concept of sustainable development is derived mostly from the 1987 Brundtland Report, it is also rooted in earlier ideas about sustainable forest management and twentieth-century environmental concerns. As the concept developed, it has shifted to focus more on economic development, social development and environmental protection for future generations. It has been suggested that “the term “sustainability” should be viewed as humanity’s target goal of human-ecosystem equilibrium (homeostasis), while “sustainable development” refers to the holistic approach and temporal processes that lead us to the end point of sustainability”.

The concept of sustainable development has been—and still is—subject to criticism. What, exactly, is to be sustained in sustainable development? It has been argued that there is no such thing as a sustainable use of a non-renewable resource since any positive rate of exploitation will eventually lead to the exhaustion of earth’s finite stock. This perspective renders the industrial revolution as a whole unsustainable. It has also been argued that the meaning of the concept has opportunistically been stretched from “conservation management” to “economic development”, and that the Brundtland Report promoted nothing but a business as a usual strategy for world development, with an ambiguous and insubstantial concept attached as a public relations slogan.” Taken from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_development

The sustainable development goal of the United Nations

Sustainability is:

What’s wrong with fast food? A clever summary.

1. A sign advertising inclusion of highly processed meat and even sugar in a sandwich.

Many fast foods are rich in calories as they include considerable amounts of mayonnaise, cheese, salt, fried meat, and oil, thus containing high-fat content (Schlosser). Excessive consumption of fatty ingredients such as these results in an unbalanced diet. Proteins and vitamins are generally recommended for daily consumption rather than large quantities of carbohydrates or fat. Due to their fat content, fast foods are implicated in poor health and various serious health issues such as obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, there is strong empirical evidence showing that fast foods are also detrimental to appetite, respiratory system function, and central nervous system function (Schlosser).

2. McDonald’s has received criticism for serving food high in saturated fat and calories.

According to the Massachusetts Medical Society Committee on Nutrition, fast foods are commonly high in fat content, and studies have found associations between fast food intake and increased body mass index (BMI) and weight gain. In particular many fast foods are high in saturated fats which are widely held to be a risk factor in heart disease. In 2010, heart disease was the number 1 ranking cause of death. *(…)

3. Food poisoning risk

This section needs attention from an expert in Health. The specific problem is: The info about manure needs verification. WikiProject Health may be able to help recruit an expert. (December 2013)
Besides the risks posed by trans fats, high caloric intake, and low fiber intake, another cited health risk is food poisoning. In his book Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal, Eric Schlosser argues that meatpacking factories concentrate livestock into feedlots and herd them through processing assembly lines operated by employees of various levels of expertise, some of which may be poorly trained, increasing the risk of large-scale food poisoning.

Manure on occasion gets mixed with meat, possibly contaminating it with salmonella and pathogenic E. coli. Usually spread through undercooked hamburgers, raw vegetables, and contaminated water, it is difficult to treat. Although supportive treatment can substantially aid inflicted individuals, since endotoxin is released from gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli upon death, antibiotic use to treat E. coli infections is not recommended.[14] About 4% of people infected with E. coli 0157:H7 develop hemolytic uremic syndrome, and about 5% of children who develop the syndrome die. The rate of developing HUS is 3 in 100,000 or 0.003%. E. coli 0157:H7 has become the leading cause of renal failure among American children.

These numbers include rates from all sources of poisoning, including lettuce; radish sprouts; alfalfa sprouts; unpasteurized apple juice/cider; cold cooked or undercooked meat; and unpasteurized animal milk. Additional environmental sources include fecal-contaminated lakes, nonchlorinated municipal water supply, petting farm animals and unhygienic person-to-person contact.[15] An average of sources leads to the number of 0.00000214% for undercooked beef.

4. Food-contact paper packaging

Fast food often comes in wrappers coated with polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) to prevent grease from leaking through them. These compounds are able to migrate from the wrappers into the packaged food.[16] Upon ingestion, PAPs are subsequently biotransformed into perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), compounds which have long attracted attention due to their detrimental health effects in rodents and their unusually long half-lives in humans. While epidemiological evidence has not demonstrated causal links between PFCAs and these health problems in humans, the compounds are consistently correlated with high levels of cholesterol and uric acid, and PAPs, as found on fast food packaging, may be a significant source of PFCA contamination in humans.

On average, nearly one-third of U.S. children aged 4 to 19 eat fast food on a daily basis. Over the course of a year this is likely to result in a child gaining 6 extra pounds every year. *(…) any given day 30.3% of the total sample had eaten fast food. Fast-food consumption was prevalent in both males and females, in all racial/ethnic groups, and in all regions of the country.

Contrary evidence has been documented that questions the correlation of a fast food diet and obesity. A 2014 People Magazine article recounts the experience of John Cisna, a science teacher at Colo-NESCO High School, who ate a fast food diet for 90 days. At the end of 90 days he had lost 37 pounds and his cholesterol level went from 249 to 170. Cisna kept to a strict 2,000 calorie limit a day and walked 45 minutes a day. Harley Pasternak, a celebrity trainer and nutrition expert, supports Cisna’s experiment by saying, “While I don’t think it’s a great idea to eat too much fast food…I do think he is right. Fast food, while far from healthy, doesn’t make people gain weight. Eating too much fast food too often is what can make you gain weight—the same way eating too much of anything can pack on the pounds.” -https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criticism_of_fast_foodFast F

How to tell if a girl likes you or not?

Once you can read the subconscious signals of attraction, you can tell if a girl is attracted to you, without even talking to her. You’ll also be able to instantly tell if a girl isn’t attracted to you by paying attention to negative indications of interest. Part two breaks down some additional subconscious signals girls unknowingly and knowingly give off when they’re attracted to you.

Men, on average, tend to be attracted to women who are shorter than they are, have a youthful appearance, and exhibit features such as a symmetrical face, full breasts, full lips, and a low waist-hip ratio. Women, on average, tend to be attracted to men who are taller than they are, display a high degree of facial symmetry, masculine facial dimorphism, and who have broad shoulders, a relatively narrow waist, and a V-shaped torso.

Physical attractiveness is the degree to which a person’s physical features are considered aesthetically pleasing or beautiful. The term often implies sexual attractiveness or desirability, but can also be distinct from either. There are many factors which influence one person’s attraction to another, with physical aspects being one of them. The physical attraction itself includes universal perceptions common to all human cultures, as well as aspects that are culturally and socially dependent, along with individual subjective preferences.
In many cases, humans subconsciously attribute positive characteristics, such as intelligence and honesty, to physically attractive people.From research done in the United States and the United Kingdom, it was found that the association between intelligence and physical attractiveness is stronger among men than among women. Evolutionary psychologists have tried to answer why individuals who are more physically attractive should also, on average, be more intelligent, and have put forward the notion that both general intelligence and physical attractiveness may be indicators of underlying genetic fitness. A person’s physical characteristics can signal cues to fertility and health. Attending to these factors increases reproductive success, furthering the representation of one’s genes in the population.

What is Procastination?

 

” Procrastination (from latin’s “procrastinare”, that translates in to : the prefix pro-, ‘forward’, and suffix -crastinus, ’till next day’ from cras, ‘tomorrow’) is the avoidance of doing a task that needs to be accomplished. Sometimes, procrastination takes place until the “last minute” before a deadline.

Procrastination can take hold on any aspect of life—putting off cleaning the stove, repairing a leaky roof, seeing a doctor or dentist, submitting a job report or academic assignment or broaching a stressful issue with a partner. Procrastination can lead to feelings of: guilt, inadequacy, depression and self-doubt.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Procrastination

But is procrastination really bad?

Brief History of Rome and Jerusalem

This week on Crash Course Mythology, we’re getting urban. Mike Rugnetta is the man with the orange umbrella who’s about to give you a free tour of mythical cities. We’ll talk about a few cities that didn’t exist, but we’re going to focus on real cities with mythical founding stories. We’ll talk about Jericho, Jerusalem, and Rome, among others.

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Who is Gary A. Klein?

Insights are unexpected shifts in the way we understand how something works, and how to make it work better. Gary’s talk examines two mysteries. First, where do insights come from? This talk presents a new account of the nature of insights. Second, how can we trigger more insights? Gary describes a strategy for adopting an insight mindset.

Gary Klein, Ph.D., is known for the cognitive models, such as the Recognition-Primed Decision (RPD) model, the Data/Frame model of sensemaking, the Management By Discovery model of planning in complex settings, and the Triple Path model of insight, the methods he developed, including techniques for Cognitive Task Analysis, the PreMortem method of risk assessment, and the ShadowBox training approach, and the movement he helped to found in 1989 — Naturalistic Decision Making. The company he started in 1978, Klein Associates, grew to 37 employees by the time he sold it in 2005. He formed his new company, ShadowBox LLC, in 2014 and is the author of five books. Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n5OO9L67jL4

Who is Daniel Kahneman?

Daniel Kahneman, the recipient of the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for his seminal work in psychology that challenged the rational model of judgment and decision making, is one of our most important thinkers. His ideas have had a profound and widely regarded impact on many fields—including economics, medicine, and politics—but until now, he has never brought together his many years of research and thinking in one book.

In the highly anticipated Thinking, Fast and Slow, Kahneman takes us on a groundbreaking tour of the mind and explains the two systems that drive the way we think. System 1 is fast, intuitive, and emotional; System 2 is slower, more deliberative, and more logical. Kahneman exposes the extraordinary capabilities—and also the faults and biases—of fast thinking, and reveals the pervasive influence of intuitive impressions on our thoughts and behavior. The impact of loss aversion and overconfidence on corporate strategies, the difficulties of predicting what will make us happy in the future, the challenges of properly framing risks at work and at home, the profound effect of cognitive biases on everything from playing the stock market to planning the next vacation—each of these can be understood only by knowing how the two systems work together to shape our judgments and decisions.

Engaging the reader in a lively conversation about how we think, Kahneman reveals where we can and cannot trust our intuitions and how we can tap into the benefits of slow thinking. He offers practical and enlightening insights into how choices are made in both our business and our personal lives—and how we can use different techniques to guard against the mental glitches that often get us into trouble. Thinking, Fast and Slow will transform the way you think about thinking.
Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CjVQJdIrDJ0

What is Suicide?

” Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one’s own death. Risk factors include mental disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorders, and substance abuse, including alcoholism and use of benzodiazepines. Other suicides are impulsive acts due to stress such as from financial difficulties, troubles with relationships, or from bullying. Those who have previously attempted suicide are at higher risk for future attempts. Suicide prevention efforts include limiting access to methods of suicide, such as firearms, drugs, and poisons, treating mental disorders and substance misuse, proper media reporting of suicide, and improving economic conditions. Although crisis hotlines are common, there is little evidence for their effectiveness.

The most commonly used method of suicide varies between countries and is partly related to the availability of effective means. Common methods include hanging, pesticide poisoning, and firearms. Suicide resulted in 828,000 deaths globally in 2015 (up from 712,000 deaths in 1990). This makes it the 10th leading cause of death worldwide.

Approximately 0.5% to 1.4% of people die by suicide, about 12 per 100,000 persons per year. Three-quarters of suicides globally occur in the developing world. Rates of completed suicides are generally higher in men than in women, ranging from 1.5 times as much in the developing world to 3.5 times in the developed world. Suicide is generally most common among those over the age of 70; however, in certain countries, those aged between 15 and 30 are at highest risk. There are an estimated 10 to 20 million non-fatal attempted suicides every year. Non-fatal suicide attempts may lead to injury and long-term disabilities. In the Western world, attempts are more common in young people and females.

Views on suicide have been influenced by broad existential themes such as religion, honor, and the meaning of life. The Abrahamic religions traditionally consider suicide an offense towards God due to the belief in the sanctity of life. During the samurai era in Japan, a form of suicide known as seppuku (harakiri) was respected as a means of making up for failure or as a form of protest. Sati, a practice outlawed by the British Raj, expected the Indian widow to kill herself on her husband’s funeral fire, either willingly or under pressure from the family and society. Suicide and attempted suicide, while previously illegal, are no longer so in most Western countries. It remains a criminal offense in many countries. In the 20th and 21st centuries, suicide has been used on rare occasions as a form of protest, and kamikaze and suicide bombings have been used as a military or terrorist tactic.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suicide

Shraddha Shankar tells in her own words the experience she´s  had in her attempts of suicide on her life. Watch this interesting video of this brave lady, TED talk.

What are Dreams and Why We Dream?

“A dream is a succession of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that usually occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep. The content and purpose of dreams are not fully understood, though they have been a topic of scientific speculation, as well as a subject of philosophical and religious interest, throughout recorded history. Dream interpretation is the attempt at drawing meaning from dreams and searching for an underlying message. The scientific study of dreams is called oneirology.

Dreams mainly occur in the rapid-eye-movement (REM) stage of sleep—when brain activity is high and resembles that of being awake. REM sleep is revealed by continuous movements of the eyes during sleep. At times, dreams may occur during other stages of sleep. However, these dreams tend to be much less vivid or memorable. The length of a dream can vary; they may last for a few seconds, or approximately 20–30 minutes. People are more likely to remember the dream if they are awakened during the REM phase. The average person has three to five dreams per night, and some may have up to seven; however, most dreams are immediately or quickly forgotten. Dreams tend to last longer as the night progresses. During a full eight-hour night sleep, most dreams occur in the typical two hours of REM.

Opinions about the meaning of dreams have varied and shifted through time and culture. Many endorse the Freudian theory of dreams – that dreams reveal insight into hidden desires and emotions. Other prominent theories include those suggesting that dreams assist in memory formation, problem-solving, or simply are a product of random brain activation. The earliest recorded dreams were acquired from materials dating back approximately 5000 years, in Mesopotamia, where they were documented on clay tablets. In the Greek and Roman periods, the people believed that dreams were direct messages from deities or deceased persons and that they predicted the future. Some cultures practiced dream incubation with the intention of cultivating dreams that are of prophecy.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dream

 

How to Break Bad Habits?

Bad habits are all those things we do that do not guide us to anything good. This includes smoking, sleeping in incorrect places. How do we control or break them we need to accept we are doing something that is not doing us any good when you mindfully recognize your habit you can break it.

” A bad habit is a negative behavior pattern. Common examples include procrastination, fidgeting, overspending, stereotyping, gossips, bullying, and nail-biting.

It is not a misconception that it takes on average 66 days to break a habit. The amount of time it takes to break a habit is generally between 18 and 254 days. This should often be repeated once or maybe twice depending on what the habit is, something small like chewing fingernail should only have to be done once. larger habits like smoking should be repeated at twice but everyone is different so it could be less. There are many techniques for removing bad habits once they have become established. One good one is to go for between 21 and 28 days try as hard as possible not to give in to the habit then rewarding your self at the end of it. Then try to go a week, if the habit remains to repeat the process, this method is proven to have a high success rate.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bad_habit

How Does Body Language Express who We Are?

Our body language can really tell who we are and can even show things of how we feel, experts say that with the appropriate pose we can show others security or anything we want to transmit. We can boost out a series of feelings when we do not even feel like them.

” Body language is a type of non-verbal communication in which physical behavior, as opposed to words, are used to express or convey information. Such behavior includes facial expressions, body posture, gestures, eye movement, touch and the use of space. Body language exists in both animals and humans, but this article focuses on interpretations of human body language. It is also known as kinesics.

Body language must not be confused with sign language, assign languages are full languages like spoken languages and have their own complex grammar systems, as well as being able to exhibit the fundamental properties that exist in all languages. Body language, on the other hand, does not have a grammar and must be interpreted broadly, instead of having an absolute meaning corresponding with a certain movement, so it is not a language like sign language and is simply termed as a “language” due to popular culture.

In a community, there are agreed-upon interpretations of particular behavior. Interpretations may vary from country to country, or culture to culture. On this note, there is controversy on whether body language is universal. Body language, a subset of nonverbal communication, complements verbal communication in social interaction. In fact, some researchers conclude that nonverbal communication accounts for the majority of information transmitted during interpersonal interactions. It helps to establish the relationship between two people and regulates interaction, but can be ambiguous.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Body_language

What are Aerobic Exercises?

” Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is a physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process. Aerobic literally means “relating to, involving, or requiring free oxygen”, and refers to the use of oxygen to adequately meet energy demands during exercise via aerobic metabolism. Generally, light-to-moderate intensity activities that are sufficiently supported by aerobic metabolism can be performed for extended periods of time.

When practiced in this way, examples of cardiovascular/aerobic exercise are medium to long distance running/jogging, swimming, cycling, and walking, according to the first extensive research on aerobic exercise, conducted in the 1960s on over 5,000 U.S. Air Force personnel by Dr. Kenneth H. Cooper.

Kenneth Cooper was the first person to introduce the concept of aerobic exercise. In the 1960s, Cooper started research into preventive medicine. He became intrigued by the belief that exercise can preserve one’s health. In 1970 he created his own institute (the Cooper Institute) for non-profit research and education devoted to preventive medicine. He sparked millions into becoming active and is now known as the “father of aerobics”. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aerobic_exercise

What is Crossfit?

” CrossFit is a branded fitness regimen created by Greg Glassman and is a registered trademark of CrossFit, Inc. which was founded by Greg Glassman and Lauren Jenai in 2000. Promoted as both a physical exercise philosophy and also as a competitive fitness sport, CrossFit workouts incorporate elements from high-intensity interval training, Olympic weightlifting, plyometrics, powerlifting, gymnastics, girevoy sport, calisthenics, strongman, and other exercises. It is practiced by members of over 13,000 affiliated gyms, roughly half of which are located in the United States, and by individuals who complete daily workouts (otherwise known as “WODs” or “workouts of the day”).

CrossFit is a strength and conditioning program consisting mainly of a mix of aerobic exercise, calisthenics (body weight exercises), and Olympic weightlifting. CrossFit, Inc. describes its strength and conditioning program as “constantly varied functional movements executed at high intensity across broad time and modal domains,” with the stated goal of improving fitness, which it defines as “work capacity across broad time and modal domains.” Hour-long classes at affiliated gyms, or “boxes”, typically include a warm-up, a skill development segment, the high-intensity “workout of the day” (or WOD), and a period of individual or group stretching. Some gyms also often have a strength focused movement prior to the WOD. Performance on each WOD is often scored and/or ranked to encourage competition and to track individual progress. Some affiliates offer additional classes, such as Olympic weightlifting, which are not centered around a WOD.

The wall walk exercise uses a wall to practice handstands, usually used as skill work to strengthen the shoulder and core in order to improve overhead movements and handstand push-ups.

CrossFit gyms use equipment from multiple disciplines, including barbells, dumbbells, gymnastics rings, pull-up bars, jump ropes, kettlebells, medicine balls, plyo boxes, resistance bands, rowing machines, and various mats. CrossFit is focused on “constantly varied, high-intensity, functional movement,” drawing on categories and exercises such as these: calisthenics, Olympic-style weightlifting, powerlifting, Strongman-type events, plyometrics, body weight exercises, indoor rowing, aerobic exercise, running, and swimming.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CrossFit

Where does Iberian Ham Comes From?

Iberian ham comes from Iberian pigs, that are grown in a special way, that makes the meat have a unique flavor. In the Iberian, Peninsula pig are grown up in large fields where they walk around feeding on acorns until they reach a certain age and are harvested.

“The black Iberian pig lives primarily in the central and southwestern region of the Iberian Peninsula, which includes both Portugal and Spain. In Spain, the Black Iberian Pig is typically found in the provinces of Huelva (Denomination of Origin Huelva), Córdoba (Protected Denomination of Origin Valle de Los Pedroches), Cáceres, Badajoz (Protected Denomination of Origin Dehesa de Extremadura), Salamanca, Ciudad Real and Seville. In Portugal, the central and southern regions have an abundance of this species, with a predilection for the Alentejo region. In Portugal, the Black Iberian Pig is commonly referred to as or Porco Alentejo. The Black Iberian Pig is ingrained in the local Portuguese culture and tradition, with annual festivals in their honor, such as the Feira do Porco Preto, an annual festival in the region of Ourique.

The hams are labeled according to the pigs’ diet and the percentage of the pigs’ Iberian ancestry, with an acorn diet and pure-bred Iberians being most desirable. The current labeling system, based on a series of color-coded labels, was phased in starting in January 2014.

Characteristics

  • The finest is called jamón ibérico de bellota (acorn). This ham is from free-range pigs that roam oak forests (called dehesas) along the border between Spain and Portugal and eat only acorns during this last period. It is also known as jamón ibérico de Montanera. The exercise and diet have a significant impact on the flavor of the meat; the ham is cured for 36 months. This grade is divided into two subtypes:
    • Black label — Identifies jamón 100% ibérico de bellota produced from pure-bred Iberian pigs fed as above.
    • Red label — Identifies jamón ibérico de bellota from free-range pigs that are not pure-bred, but also fed exclusively on acorns during the final period. Since 2014, the percentage of Iberian ancestry in the animal must be specified on the label.
  • The next grade is called jamón ibérico cebo de Campo. This ham is from pigs that are pastured and fed a combination of acorns and grain. As of 2014, this ham bears a green label.
  • The third type is called jamón ibérico de cebo, or simply, jamón ibérico. This ham is from pigs that are fed only grain. The ham is cured for 24 months. As of 2014, this ham bears a white label.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jam%C3%B3n_ib%C3%A9rico

If you are interested in learning more about the Iberian Ham and it’s production system you can check this link:

https://www.mapfre.com/mapfrere/docs/html/revistas/trebol/n70/pdf/Articulo2-en.pdf

How are Introverts?

“Introversion is the state of being predominantly interested in one’s own mental self. Introverts are typically perceived as more reserved or reflective. Some popular psychologists have characterized introverts as people whose energy tends to expand through reflection and dwindle during interaction. This is similar to Jung’s view, although he focused on mental energy rather than physical energy. Few modern conceptions make this distinction.

Introverts often take pleasure in solitary activities such as reading, writing, using computers, hiking, and fishing. The archetypal artist, writer, sculptor, scientist, engineer, composer, and inventor are all highly introverted. An introvert is likely to enjoy time spent alone and find less reward in time spent with large groups of people, though they may enjoy interactions with close friends. Trust is usually an issue of significance: a virtue of utmost importance to introverts is choosing a worthy companion. They prefer to concentrate on a single activity at a time and like to observe situations before they participate, especially observed in developing children and adolescents. They are more analytical before speaking. Introverts are easily overwhelmed by too much stimulation from social gatherings and engagement, introversion having even been defined by some in terms of a preference for a quiet, more minimally stimulating external environment.

Mistaking introversion for shyness is a common error. Introverts prefer solitary to social activities, but do not necessarily fear social encounters like shy people do. Susan Cain argues in Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can’t Stop Talking that modern Western culture misjudges the capabilities of introverted people, leading to a waste of talent, energy, and happiness. Cain describes how society is biased against introverts, and that, with people being taught from childhood that to be sociable is to be happy, introversion is now considered “somewhere between a disappointment and pathology”. In contrast, Cain says that introversion is not a “second-class” trait but that both introverts and extraverts enrich society, with examples including the introverts J. K. Rowling, Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, Mahatma Gandhi, Dr. Seuss, W. B. Yeats, Steven Spielberg and Larry Page.”

 

What Defines You? By Lizzie Velasquez TED talk

Lizzie Velasquez is a brilliant and fantastic 25-year-old lady who was born with a strange syndrome. In her special condition, she can not gain weight at all. During her life, many obstacles have overcome, but she has used them as a ladder to go after her dreams. As far as she´s gone she has achieved some of them and is after more.

Her speech is a motivation to all of those people that see life like a big mountain that they are not able to manage. Watch her incredible story and how she has turned negative into positive even though people attacked her for doing nothing them.

What are Toxic Relationships?

We all need friends, human beings are social. The best of our lives are our friends and the things lived with them. Special cases are when those special toxic friends appear and our life turns not so good. Learn how to recognize those toxic relationships.

  1. Pay attention if your friend is being mean to you.
  2. Friends hat gossip continuously of you.
  3. Constant mockery.
  4. Time spent with your friend.
  5. Always know what a healthy relationship is like.
  6. Your feelings go first always so be careful when you are not feeling okay

Sharon Livington shares her experiences on how to recognize a toxic relationship based on her experience.

Who is Rama and the Ramayana?

Rama or Ramachandra is one of the principal gods of in Hinduism. This god shares its importance with Krishna and Gautama Buddha. Countless myths include Rama in them. In this video, Hinduism culture will overflow.

“Rama (/ˈrɑːmə/; Sanskrit: राम, IAST: Rāma), also known as Ramachandra, is a major deity of Hinduism. He is the seventh avatar of the god Vishnu, one of his most popular incarnations along with Krishna and Gautama Buddha. In Rama-centric traditions of Hinduism, he is considered the Supreme Being.

Rama was born to Kaushalya and Dasharatha in Ayodhya, the ruler of the Kingdom of Kosala. His siblings included Lakshmana, Bharata, and Shatrughna. He married Sita. Though born in a royal family, their life is described in the Hindu texts as one challenged by unexpected changes such as an exile into impoverished and difficult circumstances, ethical questions, and moral dilemmas. Of all their travails, the most notable is the kidnapping of Sita by demon-king Ravana, followed by the determined and epic efforts of Rama and Lakshmana to gain her freedom and destroy the evil Ravana against great odds. The entire life story of Rama, Sita, and their companions allegorically discusses duties, rights and social responsibilities of an individual. It illustrates dharma and dharmic living through model characters.

Rama is especially important to Vaishnavism. He is the central figure of the ancient Hindu epic Ramayana, a text historically popular in the South Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. His ancient legends have attracted bhasya (commentaries) and extensive secondary literature and inspired performance arts. Two such texts, for example, are the Adhyatma Ramayana – a spiritual and theological treatise considered foundational by Ramanandi monasteries, and the Ramcharitmanas – a popular treatise that inspires thousands of Ramlila festival performances during autumn every year in India. Rama legends are also found in the texts of Jainism and Buddhism, though he is sometimes called Pauma or Padma in these texts, and their details vary significantly from the Hindu versions.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rama

What Is Psychotherapy?

Psychotherapy is also known as talk therapy it is a way to help people with mental illness and emotional difficulties. People can improve a lot with this type of treatment, a number of sessions are held in which different topics are talked about. Not only psychologists are trained to give psychotherapies, psychiatrists are also in the same line.

” Psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change and overcome problems in desired ways. Psychotherapy aims to improve an individual’s well-being and mental health, to resolve or mitigate troublesome behaviors, beliefs, compulsions, thoughts, or emotions, and to improve relationships and social skills. Certain psychotherapies are considered evidence-based for treating some diagnosed mental disorders.

There are over a thousand different psychotherapy techniques, some being minor variations, while others are based on very different conceptions of psychology, ethics (how to live) or techniques. Most involve one-to-one sessions, between client and therapist, but some are conducted with groups,  including families. Psychotherapists may be mental health professionals such as psychiatrists, psychologists, clinical social workers, marriage and family therapists, or professional counselors. Psychotherapists may also come from a variety of other backgrounds, and depending on the jurisdiction may be legally regulated, voluntarily regulated or unregulated (and the term itself may be protected or not).

Psychotherapists may be mental health professionals, professionals from other backgrounds trained in a specific therapy, or in some cases non-professionals. Psychiatrists are first trained as physicians. As such, they may prescribe prescription medication. Specialist psychiatric training begins after medical school in psychiatric residencies. Clinical psychologists have specialist doctoral degrees in psychology with clinical and research components. Clinical social workers, mental health, and intellectual disability nurses may have specialized training and practical experience in psychotherapy. Many of the wide variety of training programs and institutional settings are multi-professional. In most countries, professionals doing specialized psychotherapeutic work also require a program of continuing education after the basic degree.

As sensitive and deeply personal topics are often discussed during psychotherapy, therapists are expected, and usually legally bound, to respect client or patient confidentiality. The critical importance of client confidentiality—and the limited circumstances in which it may need to be broken for the protection of clients or others—is enshrined in the regulatory psychotherapeutic organizations’ codes of ethical practice.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychotherapy

What is Delusional disorder?

Delusional disorder is a mental illness in which patients have delusions for different periods of time. Delusions are bizarre and they cannot be diagnosed easily until someone touches there delusional themes. Delusions are varied and patients are classified according to them.

“Delusional disorder is a mental illness in which the patient presents with delusions, but with no accompanying prominent hallucinations, thought disorder, mood disorder, or significant flattening of effect. Delusions are a specific symptom of psychosis. Delusions can be “bizarre” or “non-bizarre” in content; non-bizarre delusions are fixed false beliefs that involve situations that could potentially occur in real life, such as being followed or poisoned. Apart from their delusions, people with the delusional disorder may continue to socialize and function in a normal manner and their behavior does not necessarily generally seem odd. However, the preoccupation with delusional ideas can be disruptive to their overall lives.

For the diagnosis to be made, auditory and visual hallucinations cannot be prominent, though olfactory or tactile hallucinations related to the content of the delusion may be present. The delusions cannot be due to the effects of a drug, medication, or general medical condition, and delusional disorder cannot be diagnosed in an individual previously properly diagnosed with schizophrenia. A person with delusional disorder may be high functioning in daily life. Recent and comprehensive meta-analysis of scientific studies points to an association between a deterioration in aspects of IQin psychotic patients, in particular, perceptual reasoning.

According to German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin, patients with delusional disorder remain coherent, sensible and reasonable. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) defines six subtypes of the disorder characterized as erotomanic (believes that someone is in love with them), grandiose (believes that they are the greatest, strongest, fastest, richest, or most intelligent person ever), jealous (believes that the love partner is cheating on them), persecutory (delusions that the person or someone to whom the person is close is being malevolently treated in some way), somatic (believes that they have a disease or medical condition), and mixed, i.e., having features of more than one subtype. Delusions also occur as symptoms of many other mental disorders, especially the other psychotic disorders.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delusional_disorder

 

 

What is Moral Luck?

 

“Moral luck describes circumstances whereby a moral agent is assigned moral blame or praise for an action or its consequences even if it is clear that said agent did not have full control over either the action or its consequences. This term, introduced by Bernard Williams, has been developed, along with its significance to a coherent moral theory, by Williams and Thomas Nagel in their respective essays on the subject.

Responsibility and voluntarism

Broadly speaking, human beings tend to correlate, at least intuitively, responsibility and voluntary action. Thus, the most blame is assigned to persons for their actions and the consequences they entail when we have good cause to believe that both:

    the action was performed voluntarily and without outside coercion,

  • the agent understood the full range of the consequences of their decisions and actions, as could have reasonably been foreseen either at or prior to the time that the action was performed.

Conversely, there is a tendency to be much more sympathetic to those who satisfy any of the following conditions:

  • the agent was coerced to perform the action
  • the agent performed the action through accident and without any fault or negligence of their own
  • at the time of their actions, the agent did not know and had no way of knowing, the consequences that their actions would bring

Parenthetically, the above criteria do not correlate exactly with moral praise – while it may be true that one can and should assign a good deal of moral praise to those who had performed a good action, or an action entailing good consequences, completely on their own volition and uncoerced, it is debatable that the same distinction holds for involuntary actions that happened to turn out well or happened to produce good outcomes.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moral_luck

What is Poverty?

Poverty includes a series of elements between them social, economic and political. It refers to the lack of the things necessary for a person to live. Year by year many projects are developed but not one secures that this will end poverty around the world. What can we do about it? Our societies have the obligation or not to do something about it, let’s think about it.

“Poverty is a multifaceted concept, which may include social, economic, and political elements. Absolute poverty, extreme poverty, or destitution refers to the complete lack of the means necessary to meet basic personal needs such as food, clothing, and shelter.

The threshold at which absolute poverty is defined is considered to be about the same, independent of the person’s permanent location or era. On the other hand, relative poverty occurs when a person who lives in a country X does not enjoy a certain minimum level of “living standards” as compared to the rest of the population of the same country. Therefore, the threshold at which relative poverty is defined varies from country to another, or from one society to another.

After the industrial revolution, mass production in factories made producing goods increasingly less expensive and more accessible. Of more importance is the modernization of agriculture, such as fertilizers, to provide enough yield to feed the population. Providing basic needs can be restricted by constraints on government’s ability to deliver services, such as corruption, tax avoidance, debt and loan conditionalities and by the brain drain of health care and educational professionals. Strategies of increasing income to make basic needs more affordable typically include welfare, economic freedoms and providing financial services.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poverty

What Is A Myth?

Myths are traditional stories that come from past generations. They represent the culture and beliefs of many people and are rich and creative. The characters in myths are magical creatures with interesting powers. In this article, we will learn about myths and where they came from.

“A myth is a traditional story consisting of events that are ostensibly historical, though often supernatural, explaining the origins of a cultural practice or natural phenomenon. The word “myth” is derived from the Greek word mythos (μῦθος), which simply means “story”. Mythology can refer either to the study of myths or to a body or collection of myths.[4] Myth can mean ‘sacred story’, ‘traditional narrative’ or ‘tale of the gods’. A myth can also be a story to explain why something exists.

Human cultures’ mythologies usually include a cosmogonical or creation myth, concerning the origins of the world, or how the world came to exist. The active beings in myths are generally gods and goddesses, heroes and heroines, or animals and plants. Most myths are set in a timeless past before recorded time or beginning of the critical history. A myth can be a story involving symbols that are capable of multiple meanings.

A myth is a sacred narrative because it holds religious or spiritual significance for those who tell it. Myths also contribute to and express a culture’s systems of thought and values, such as the myth of gremlins invented by aircraft technicians during World War II to avoid apportioning blame. Myths are often, therefore, stories that are currently understood as being exaggerated or fictitious.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myth