What is Virtue Theory?

Virtue theory belongs to the Aristotelian ethics, these philosophical ethics answer the question on how humans should best live. Aristoteles believes that to develop excellence you needed virtue and happiness. He believed firmly that virtue is practical and the principal purpose of ethics is to be good and just to only know it.

“Aristotle first used the term ethics to name a field of study developed by his predecessors Socrates and Plato. Philosophical ethics is the attempt to offer a rational response to the question of how humans should best live. Aristotle regarded ethics and politics as two related but separate fields of study, since ethics examines the good of the individual, while politics examines the good of the city-state.

Aristotle’s writings have been read more or less continuously since ancient times, and his ethical treatises, in particular, continue to influence philosophers working today. Aristotle emphasized the importance of developing excellence (virtue) of character (Greek ethikē aretē), as the way to achieve what is finally more important, excellent conduct (Greek energeia). As Aristotle argues in Book II of the Nicomachean Ethics, the man who possesses character excellence does the right thing, at the right time, and in the right way. Bravery and the correct regulation of one’s bodily appetites are examples of character excellence or virtue. So acting bravely and acting temperately are examples of excellent activities. The highest aims are living well and eudaimonia a Greek word often translated as well-being, happiness or “human flourishing”. Like many ethicists, Aristotle regards the excellent activity as pleasurable for the man of virtue. For example, Aristotle thinks that the man whose appetites are in the correct order actually takes pleasure in acting moderately.

Aristotle emphasized that virtue is practical and that the purpose of ethics is to become good, not merely to know. Aristotle also claims that the right course of action depends upon the details of a particular situation, rather than being generated merely by applying a law. The type of wisdom which is required for this is called “prudence” or “practical wisdom” (Greek phronesis), as opposed to the wisdom of a theoretical philosopher (Greek Sophia). But despite the importance of practical decision-making, in the final analysis, the original Aristotelian and Socratic answer to the question of how best to live, at least for the best types of human, was to live the life of philosophy.'” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristotelian_ethics


What is Contractarianism or Contractualism?

Contractarianism or Contractualism refers to a political theory of legitimacy and moral. This theory settles the beginnings of moral norms. Moral norms derive from the idea of mutual agreement.

“Contractualism is a term in philosophy that refers either to a family of political theories in the social contract tradition (when used in this sense, the term is synonymous with contractarianism)  or to the ethical theory developed in recent years by T. M. Scanlon, especially in his book What We Owe to Each Other.

Social contract theorists from the history of political thought include Hugo Grotius (1625), Thomas Hobbes (1651), Samuel Pufendorf (1673), John Locke (1689), Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1762), and Immanuel Kant (1797); more recently, John Rawls (1971), David Gauthier (1986) and Philip Pettit (1997).” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contractualism

Who is the biggest critic of religion? Sam Harris, this is why.

“I think it is terrible that the president of the United States started speaking the way I speak. He can not say we are at war with Islam I got new, but we need a clear appraisal of our situation in the World and I don’t hear the appraisal coming from religious moderates and religious liberates. I don’t see the purchase point theologically, where they can stand and say: Listen, guys, you have it wrong because your interpretation is false. ” Sam Harris.

“Samuel Benjamin Harris (born April 9, 1967) is an American author, philosopher, and neuroscientist. His first book, The End of Faith (2004), is a critique of organized religion. In The Moral Landscape (2010), Harris argues that science can help answer moral problems and aid human well-being. He published a long-form essay Lying in 2011, the short book Free Will in 2012, Waking Up: A Guide to Spirituality Without Religion in 2014 and, with British activist Maajid Nawaz, Islam and the Future of Tolerance: A Dialogue in 2015.

Harris is a critic of religion and proponent of the liberty to criticize it. Harris is also a proponent of secular meditation practices adopted from Buddhism (especially Vipassana), has devoted two years of his life to silent practice in India. He has also praised Advaita Vedanta and Dzogchen, as “they contain empirical insights about the nature of consciousness that do not depend upon faith.” He is the co-founder and chief executive of Project Reason, a nonprofit organization that promotes science and secularism, and host of the Waking Up podcast. He is considered a member of the “Four Horsemen of New Atheism”, alongside Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett, and the late Christopher Hitchens.”Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sam_Harris