Earth Layers

The layers of Earth are a great mystery as we really don´t have much evidence of whats really down there. So, this small documentary that “documents” a simulated trip to the core of the planet is a great way to get a feel for this very interesting theory on whats at the core of our planet. 

Resultado de imagen para Wikipedia layers of the planet

Layers based on chemical composition

During Earth’s early formation, the planet underwent a period of differentiation that allowed the heaviest elements to sink to the center and lighter ones to rise to the surface. Earth’s internal layering can be defined by this resulting chemical composition. The three main layers of Earth include the crust (1 percent of Earth’s volume), the mantle (84 percent), and the core (inner and outer combined, 15 percent). [1]

Crust

The solid crust is the outermost and thinnest layer of our planet. The crust averages 25 miles (40 kilometers) in thickness and is divided in to fifteen major tectonic plates that are rigid in the center and have geologic activity at the boundaries, such as earthquakes and volcanism.

The most abundant elements in the Earth’s crust include (listed here by weight percent) oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, and calcium. These elements combine to form the most abundant minerals in the Earth’s crust, members of the silicate family – plagioclase and alkali feldspars, quartz, pyroxenes, amphiboles, micas, and clay minerals.

All three rock types (igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic) can be found in Earth’s crust. Crustal material is classified as oceanic crust or continental crust. Oceanic crust underlies our ocean basins, is thin, approximately 4 miles (7 kilometers) in thickness, and is composed of dense rocks, primarily the igneous rock basalt. Continental crust is thicker, ranging from 6 to 47 miles (10 to 75 kilometers), and has a high abundance of the less dense igneous rock granite. The oldest rocks on our planet are part of the continental crust and date back approximately 4 billion years in age. Ocean crust is constantly recycled through our planet’s system of plate tectonics and only dates back to approximately 200 million years ago.

The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) has drilled deep in to the ocean crust (4,644 feet below the seafloor) but has not yet broken through to the next layer, the mantle. [2] The boundary between the crust and underlying mantle is termed the Mohorovicic discontinuity, often referred to as the Moho.

Mantle

Mantle material is hot (932 to 1,652 degrees Fahrenheit, 500 to 900 degrees Celsius) and dense and moves as semi-solid rock. The mantle is 1,802 miles (2,900 km) thick and is composed of silicate minerals that are similar to ones found in the crust, except with more magnesium and iron and less silicon and aluminum.

The base of the mantle, at the boundary with the outer core, is termed the Gutenberg discontinuity. It is at this depth (1,802 miles, 2,900 km) where secondary earthquake waves, or S waves, disappear, as S waves cannot travel through liquid.

Scientists are utilizing seismic tomography to construct 3-dimensional images of the mantle, but there are still limitations with the technology to fully map the Earth’s interior. [3]

Outer Core

The outer core is composed mostly of iron and nickel, with these metals found in liquid form. The outer core reaches between 7,200 and 9,000 degrees Fahrenheit (4,000 and 5,000 degrees Celsius) and is estimated to be 1,430 miles (2,300 km) thick. It is the movement of the liquid within the outer core that generates Earth’s magnetic field.

Inner Core

The inner core is the hottest part of our planet, at temperatures between 9,000 and 13,000 degrees Fahrenheit (5,000 and 7,000 degrees Celsius). This solid layer is smaller than our Moon at 750 miles (1,200 km) thick and is composed mostly of iron. The iron is under so much pressure from the overlying planet that it cannot melt and stays in a solid state.

The solid inner core is believed to have formed relatively recently, around half a billion years ago. [4] In February 2015, scientists reported in the journal Nature Geoscience their discovery that the inner core may in fact be two distinct cores with complex structural properties, where iron crystals in the outer layer of the inner core are oriented north-south, and iron crystals in the inner-inner core are aligned east-west. [5] This new discovery may help scientists learn more about the history and formation of planet Earth.

Layers based on physical properties

The Earth is separated into layers based on mechanical properties in addition to the composition layers described above.

Lithosphere

The lithosphere is the outermost layer of the Earth ~100 km thick and is defined by its mechanical properties. This rigid layer includes the brittle upper portion of the mantle and the crust. The lithosphere is divided into 15 major tectonic plates, and it is at the boundary of these plates where major tectonic occurs, such as earthquakes and volcanoes. The lithosphere contains oceanic and continental crust that varies in age and thickness across locations and geologic time. The lithosphere is the coolest layer of the Earth in terms of temperature, with the heat from the lower layers generating the plate movements. The term “lithosphere” should not be confused with the use of “geosphere,” which is used to indicate all of Earth’s systems, including the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere.

Asthenosphere

The asthenosphere includes the upper part of the mantle that is highly viscous and mechanically weak. The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) is where geophysicists mark the difference in ductility (a measures a solid material’s ability to deform or stretch under stress) between the two layers. This boundary in the upper mantle is marked at the 1300oC isotherm. Above the isotherm marks where the mantle behaves in a rigid fashion and below which it behaves in a ductile fashion. It is the ductile rocks in the upper part of the asthenosphere that are believed to be in the zone upon which the great rigid and brittle lithospheric plates of the Earth’s crust move about. Seismic waves travel relatively slowly through the asthenosphere.

Mesosphere

The mesosphere refers to the mantle in the region under the lithosphere and the asthenosphere, but above the outer core. The upper boundary is defined as the sharp increase in seismic wave velocities and density at a depth of 660 kilometers (410 mi). This layer should not be confused with the atmospheric mesosphere.

https://wiki.seg.org/wiki/Layers_of_the_Earth

What is Procastination?

 

” Procrastination (from latin’s “procrastinare”, that translates in to : the prefix pro-, ‘forward’, and suffix -crastinus, ’till next day’ from cras, ‘tomorrow’) is the avoidance of doing a task that needs to be accomplished. Sometimes, procrastination takes place until the “last minute” before a deadline.

Procrastination can take hold on any aspect of life—putting off cleaning the stove, repairing a leaky roof, seeing a doctor or dentist, submitting a job report or academic assignment or broaching a stressful issue with a partner. Procrastination can lead to feelings of: guilt, inadequacy, depression and self-doubt.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Procrastination

But is procrastination really bad?

Who is Gary A. Klein?

Insights are unexpected shifts in the way we understand how something works, and how to make it work better. Gary’s talk examines two mysteries. First, where do insights come from? This talk presents a new account of the nature of insights. Second, how can we trigger more insights? Gary describes a strategy for adopting an insight mindset.

Gary Klein, Ph.D., is known for the cognitive models, such as the Recognition-Primed Decision (RPD) model, the Data/Frame model of sensemaking, the Management By Discovery model of planning in complex settings, and the Triple Path model of insight, the methods he developed, including techniques for Cognitive Task Analysis, the PreMortem method of risk assessment, and the ShadowBox training approach, and the movement he helped to found in 1989 — Naturalistic Decision Making. The company he started in 1978, Klein Associates, grew to 37 employees by the time he sold it in 2005. He formed his new company, ShadowBox LLC, in 2014 and is the author of five books. Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n5OO9L67jL4

Who is Daniel Kahneman?

Daniel Kahneman, the recipient of the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for his seminal work in psychology that challenged the rational model of judgment and decision making, is one of our most important thinkers. His ideas have had a profound and widely regarded impact on many fields—including economics, medicine, and politics—but until now, he has never brought together his many years of research and thinking in one book.

In the highly anticipated Thinking, Fast and Slow, Kahneman takes us on a groundbreaking tour of the mind and explains the two systems that drive the way we think. System 1 is fast, intuitive, and emotional; System 2 is slower, more deliberative, and more logical. Kahneman exposes the extraordinary capabilities—and also the faults and biases—of fast thinking, and reveals the pervasive influence of intuitive impressions on our thoughts and behavior. The impact of loss aversion and overconfidence on corporate strategies, the difficulties of predicting what will make us happy in the future, the challenges of properly framing risks at work and at home, the profound effect of cognitive biases on everything from playing the stock market to planning the next vacation—each of these can be understood only by knowing how the two systems work together to shape our judgments and decisions.

Engaging the reader in a lively conversation about how we think, Kahneman reveals where we can and cannot trust our intuitions and how we can tap into the benefits of slow thinking. He offers practical and enlightening insights into how choices are made in both our business and our personal lives—and how we can use different techniques to guard against the mental glitches that often get us into trouble. Thinking, Fast and Slow will transform the way you think about thinking.
Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CjVQJdIrDJ0

What is Anorexia? in the voice of Catherine Pawley

” Anorexia from Ancient Greek is the decreased sensation of appetite. While the term in non-scientific publications is often used interchangeably with anorexia nervosa, many possible causes exist for a decreased appetite, some of which may be harmless, while others indicate a serious clinical condition or pose a significant risk.

For example, anorexia of infection is part of the acute phase response (APR) to infection. The APR can be triggered by lipopolysaccharides and peptidoglycans from bacterial cell walls, bacterial DNA, and double-stranded viral RNA, and viral glycoproteins, which can trigger production of a variety of proinflammatory cytokines. These can have an indirect effect on appetite by a number of means, including peripheral afferents from their sites of production in the body, by enhancing production of leptin from fat stores. Inflammatory cytokines can also signal to the central nervous system more directly by specialized transport mechanisms through the blood-brain barrier, via circumventricular organs(which are outside the barrier), or by triggering production of eicosanoids in the endothelial cells of the brain vasculature. Ultimately the control of appetite by this mechanism is thought to be mediated by the same factors normally controlling appetite, such as neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, histamine, norepinephrine, corticotropin-releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone).” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anorexia_(symptom)

 

https;//www.youtube.com/watch?v=gZpcTVqpaPw

Is Glass a Liquid?

The glass is a very common material in our homes. Little know the origin of this transparent and fragile material. Glass comes from melted sand that is shaped into the diverse ways we see it. Glass is found in construction materials to eating implements.

“Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics. The most familiar, and historically the oldest, types of glass are “silicate glasses” based on the chemical compound silica (silicon dioxide, or quartz), the primary constituent of sand. The term glass, in popular usage, is often used to refer only to this type of material, which is familiar from use as window glass and in glass bottles. Of the many silica-based glasses that exist, ordinary glazing and container glass is formed from a specific type called soda-lime glass, composed of approximately 75% silicon dioxide(SiO2), sodium oxide (Na2O) from sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), calcium oxide, also called lime (CaO), and several minor additives.

Many applications of silicate glasses derive from their optical transparency, giving rise to their primary use as window panes. Glass will transmit, reflect and refract light; these qualities can be enhanced by cutting and polishing to make optical lenses, prisms, fine glassware, and optical fibers for high-speed data transmission by light. Glass can be coloured by adding metallic salts, and can also be painted and printed with vitreous enamels. These qualities have led to the extensive use of glass in the manufacture of art objects and in particular, stained glass windows. Although brittle, silicate glass is extremely durable, and many examples of glass fragments exist from early glass-making cultures. Because glass can be formed or molded into any shape, it has been traditionally used for vessels: bowls, vases, bottles, jars and drinking glasses. In its most solid forms, it has also been used for paperweights, marbles, and beads. When extruded as glass fiber and matted as glass wool in a way to trap air, it becomes a thermally insulating material, and when these glass fibers are embedded into an organic polymer plastic, they are a key structural reinforcement part of the composite material fiberglass. Some objects historically were so commonly made of silicate glass that they are simply called by the name of the material, such as drinking glasses and reading glasses.”

What is Virtue Theory?

Virtue theory belongs to the Aristotelian ethics, these philosophical ethics answer the question on how humans should best live. Aristoteles believes that to develop excellence you needed virtue and happiness. He believed firmly that virtue is practical and the principal purpose of ethics is to be good and just to only know it.

“Aristotle first used the term ethics to name a field of study developed by his predecessors Socrates and Plato. Philosophical ethics is the attempt to offer a rational response to the question of how humans should best live. Aristotle regarded ethics and politics as two related but separate fields of study, since ethics examines the good of the individual, while politics examines the good of the city-state.

Aristotle’s writings have been read more or less continuously since ancient times, and his ethical treatises, in particular, continue to influence philosophers working today. Aristotle emphasized the importance of developing excellence (virtue) of character (Greek ethikē aretē), as the way to achieve what is finally more important, excellent conduct (Greek energeia). As Aristotle argues in Book II of the Nicomachean Ethics, the man who possesses character excellence does the right thing, at the right time, and in the right way. Bravery and the correct regulation of one’s bodily appetites are examples of character excellence or virtue. So acting bravely and acting temperately are examples of excellent activities. The highest aims are living well and eudaimonia a Greek word often translated as well-being, happiness or “human flourishing”. Like many ethicists, Aristotle regards the excellent activity as pleasurable for the man of virtue. For example, Aristotle thinks that the man whose appetites are in the correct order actually takes pleasure in acting moderately.

Aristotle emphasized that virtue is practical and that the purpose of ethics is to become good, not merely to know. Aristotle also claims that the right course of action depends upon the details of a particular situation, rather than being generated merely by applying a law. The type of wisdom which is required for this is called “prudence” or “practical wisdom” (Greek phronesis), as opposed to the wisdom of a theoretical philosopher (Greek Sophia). But despite the importance of practical decision-making, in the final analysis, the original Aristotelian and Socratic answer to the question of how best to live, at least for the best types of human, was to live the life of philosophy.'” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristotelian_ethics

 

What is Contractarianism or Contractualism?

Contractarianism or Contractualism refers to a political theory of legitimacy and moral. This theory settles the beginnings of moral norms. Moral norms derive from the idea of mutual agreement.

“Contractualism is a term in philosophy that refers either to a family of political theories in the social contract tradition (when used in this sense, the term is synonymous with contractarianism)  or to the ethical theory developed in recent years by T. M. Scanlon, especially in his book What We Owe to Each Other.

Social contract theorists from the history of political thought include Hugo Grotius (1625), Thomas Hobbes (1651), Samuel Pufendorf (1673), John Locke (1689), Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1762), and Immanuel Kant (1797); more recently, John Rawls (1971), David Gauthier (1986) and Philip Pettit (1997).” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contractualism

What Is Psychotherapy?

Psychotherapy is a profession of a therapist, it involves a specific set of skills and scientifically defined processes that aim to improve a person’s life. This is a great video on the subject.

“Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change and overcome problems in desired ways. Psychotherapy aims to improve an individual’s well-being and mental health, to resolve or mitigate troublesome behaviors, beliefs, compulsions, thoughts, or emotions, and to improve relationships and social skills. Certain psychotherapies are considered evidence-based for treating some diagnosed mental disorders.

There are over a thousand different psychotherapy techniques, some being minor variations, while others are based on very different conceptions of psychology, ethics (how to live) or techniques. Most involve one-to-one sessions, between client and therapist, but some are conducted with groups,[1] including families. Psychotherapists may be mental health professionals such as psychiatrists, psychologists, clinical social workers, marriage and family therapists, or professional counselors. Psychotherapists may also come from a variety of other backgrounds, and depending on the jurisdiction may be legally regulated, voluntarily regulated or unregulated (and the term itself may be protected or not).” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychotherapy

“In almost all countries and communities around the world, there is one central (usually unvoiced) suspicion that arises whenever someone lets slip that they are ‘having therapy’: they are crazy.
Getting therapeutic help should – ideally – be an ordinary and wholly unsurprising thing, like getting a haircut or going to the dentist, but it remains a very peculiar and frowned-upon recourse. Partly, that’s because the therapeutic industry currently looks deeply unimpressive. Some rather awkward people are employed in it, operating from shabby basement offices, often with dodgy credentials. A rag bag of questionable services gets labeled with this catch-all term. An industry that should be as dominant and financially significant as Audi or Nike struggles for basic recognition. There is plenty of good work being done, but it isn’t overly visible…”

 

Where Do Superheroe Powers Come From?

Evolution has come up with some pretty amazing ways to get things done when it comes to animals, plants, and microbes. From radiation-resistant bacteria (like Dr. Manhattan) to geckos who climb glass using atomic adhesion (like Spider Man) to a shrimp that can shoot a bubble the temperature of the sun (like Aquaman), nature is pretty super special thanks to Dragon’s Lair Comics & Fantasy in Austin, TX.

  1. “Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains. The group is paraphyletic as it excludes the snakes and Amphisbaenia which are also squamates. Lizards range in size from chameleons and geckos a few centimeters long to the 3 m long Komodo dragon.

Most lizards are quadrupedal, running with a strong side-to-side motion. Others are legless and have long snake-like bodies. Some such as the forest-dwelling Draco lizards are able to glide. They are often territorial, the males fighting off other males and signaling, often with bright colors, to attract mates and to intimidate rivals. Lizards are mainly carnivorous, often being sit-and-wait predators; many smaller species eat insects, while the Komodo eats mammals as big as water buffalo.

Lizards make use of a variety of anti predator adaptations, including venom, camouflage, reflex bleeding, and the ability to sacrifice and regrow their tails.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lizard

2.  “The hairy frog (Trichobatrachus robustus), also known as the horror frog or Wolverine frog, is a Central African species of frog in the Arthroleptidae family. It is monotypic within the genus Trichobatrachus. Its common name refers to the somewhat hair-like structures on the body and thighs of the breeding male.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hairy_frog. This frog has the ability to break its bones and shove them of its fingers just like Wolverine does.

Animals are incredible they have interesting characteristics to help them survive in nature and based on those awesome things superheroes have been designed.

Brexit History explained in News Clippings

“Brexit is the popular term for the United Kingdom’s prospective[1] withdrawal from the European Union (EU).[2]

In a referendum on 23 June 2016, 51.9% voted to leave the EU. On 29 March 2017, the British government invoked Article 50 of the Treaty on the European Union; although revoking this might be legally possible,[3] the UK is thus on course to leave the EU in March 2019.[4]

Prime Minister Theresa May announced that the UK would not seek permanent membership of the single market or the customs union after leaving the EU[5][6] and promised to repeal the European Communities Act of 1972 and incorporate existing European Union law into UK domestic law.[7] Negotiations with the EU officially started in June 2017.

The UK joined the European Communities on 1 January 1973,[8][9] with membership later confirmed by the holding of the first ever national referendum in June 1975. In the 1970s and 1980s, withdrawal from the EC was advocated mainly by Labour Party and trade union figures. From the 1990s, the main advocates of withdrawal were the newly founded UK Independence Party (UKIP) and an increasing number of Eurosceptic Conservatives.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brexit

How did the Personal Computer Change History?

The birth of personal computing. Up until the early 1970s components were just too expensive, or underpowered, for making a useful computer for an individual, but this would begin to change with the introduction of the Altair 8800 in 1975. In the years that follow, we’ll see the founding of Microsoft and Apple and the creation of the 1977 Trinity: The Apple II, Tandy TRS-80, and Commodore PET 2001. These new consumer oriented computers would become a huge hit, but arguably the biggest success of the era came with the release of the IBM PC in 1981. IBM completely changed the industry as its “IBM compatible” open architecture consolidated most of the industry except for, notably, Apple. Apple chose a closed architecture forming the basis of the Mac Vs PC debate that rages today. But in 1984, when Apple was losing market share fast it looked for a way to offer a new user experience like none other.

Millenials: If You Were Born After 1984 You Have To Read This!

As the crowd watched the handsome intellectual and the equally interesting interviewer, they never suspected the initial insult would become eloquent, enticing and flattering series of elevator sales pitches disguised as an empathetic piece of advice. Never the less, it worked, and regardless of the agenda, the advice was true: Millenials are people born on 1984 and after, they are considered to be tough people to manage. Others have cataloged them as narcissistic, self-ínterested and lazy! What millennials want in a job is a place with free food, bean bags and a place with a purpose, even though with all those things satisfied they are still not happy at all.

Some of the elements that affect their attitude come from:

Parenting: Some of them were grown up in houses with failed parenting strategies, this means that they were spoiled kids that had everything they wanted and were always told to be special with no special reason. The impact of adults grown under this style comes to the point that when they work and they are not rewarded they ends up being low self-esteem workers.

Technology: Millenials are experts showing life is fantastic and they have the best life ever even though they are depressed they publish pictures on Facebook, Instagram, and all social networks. They sound so secure when they give advice but the thing is that they have no idea how things are. Cellphones and social media are addictive, everyone feels good to have messages and dopamine is released in this process so the feeling fantastic comes.

Many kids and teenagers admit having friendships that are superficial, they can have fun with them but they can not trust them. They end up giving their time to social media and studies have revealed that people that give their time to social media are more susceptible to suffering depression.

Impatience: The millennials have no need to go and spend time buying a movie ticket they just go and log on and watch it. They do not even go to the store they just order something on Amazon and the next day it arrives. Impatient people that is what they are turning themselves into.

Watch this fantastic video Simon Sinek speech, millennials and what is happening with them in actual days…

 

How did Computers and the Cold War give way to Consumerism?

Today we’re going to step back from hardware and software, and take a closer look at how the backdrop of the cold war and space race and the rise of consumerism and globalization brought us from huge, expensive code-breaking machines in the 1940s to affordable handhelds and personal computers in the 1970s. This is an era that saw huge government funded projects – like the race to the moon. And afterward, a shift towards the individual consumer, commoditization of components, and the rise of the Japanese electronics industry.

Watch the video and find out what happened in this interesting period of history……

How To Take Notes?

The first step in honing your new study skills is to take better notes. In the learning process, we have to keep our information handy in case we forget something we can go back to it and access the information we need. The important part is that we have to put it in our own words, that way we will be sure we understand it.

You can take notes on a computer or on a piece of paper, both will work the same. Although studies at Princeton have demonstrated that students that take notes in a piece of paper write fewer words than those that use a computer, taking on account the speed advantage at typing your notes on the computer. Although the computer note taking students were able to write more, later on, recalled for less information when making a test. The advantage of the piece of paper and pen relies on the fact that you are not able to write that many notes but you tend to analyze more what are you writing down. That is really important!

Watch the video and learn more interesting facts and tips on how to be an expert at note taking.

What are Data Structures?

To organize the data we use on our devices and to access information in a structured and meaningful way is crucial to programming. We will introduce you to some concepts programmers used to arrange information on computers. The 4 most common ways of arrainging information in the world of computer science are:

  1. Arrays: Series of values stored in a memory. We can have a whole series of numbers stored in an array variable.
  2. Index: The easy way in which we will find a value in the array.
  3. Strings: Arrays of characters this is like letters or numbers. The strings have a null character at the end of them. Many programming languages have string concatenations function.
  4. Matrix: It is an array of arrays, we can make them the size we want and need.

Watch the video and find it more on how information is all structured in devices and computers!

 

 

What Are Algorithms? An Intro!

Algorithms are a set of steps required to complete an action. They are at the heart of what computers and modern machines do. This isn’t a new concept, its been around since the birth of math itself. Algorithms are tools for productivity when used correctly ;). Today we’re going to take a look a couple modern computing problems like sorting and graph search, and show how we’ve made them more efficient so you can more easily find cheap airfare or map directions to Winterfell… or like a restaurant or something.

What is staphylococcal enteritis?

Staphylococcal enteritis is an inflammation that is usually caused by eating or drinking substances contaminated with staph enterotoxin. The toxin, not the bacterium, settles in the small intestine and cause inflammation and swelling. This in turn can cause abdominal pain, cramping, dehydration, diarrhea, and fever.

Symptoms
Common symptoms of Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning include a rapid onset which is usually 1–6 hours, nausea, explosive vomiting for up to 24 hours, abdominal cramps/pain, headache, weakness, diarrhea and usually a subnormal body temperature. Symptoms usually start one to six hours after eating and last less than 12 hours. The duration of some cases may take two or more days to fully resolve.

What Mysteries Science Cannot Explain?

Science is the window to a new world, but it has limits there are still mysteries that cannot solve. Every magnet has 2 poles, this only happens with magnets made in labs. Read on and find out more what happens with magnets with 2 poles.

Biological Compass
When you drive through the countryside, you probably pass by dozens of herds of cows munching on grass. But what you may NOT have noticed is that nearly all of them are facing directly north or south while grazing or resting.
Hynek Burda of the University of Duisburg-Essen in Germany did not really set out to study cows. He usually studies blind, naked mole rats that seem to have an internal magnetic compass. They always build sleeping nests on the south side of their homes. Burda asked himself, “Do humans have a similar compass?” He led a team of scientists that looked through thousands of Google Earth’s satellite images to study campgrounds, looking to see in which direction people set up their tents.
Unfortunately, tents are hard to see. What isn’t hard to see? Cows. Apparently, because I’ve never looked for cows on Google Earth myself. After analyzing the images the team found that cows tend to face magnetic north or south while grazing or resting. This was especially fascinating because this was the first time an internal compass was found in a large mammal. After more searching, they realized that deer also stand and sleep along the same lines.
The pattern remains consistent regardless of the wind or other factors. The only factor that lessened the consistency was how close the herds were to the poles. The closer they were, the less accurate their alignments became.
The phenomenon could have other implications maybe on agricultural production if cows are forced to stay in an east-west orientation. The mystery is Why? Why do they always stand facing North or South? Does it have a purpose? Do they feel more balanced? This behavior was observed among cows across six continents so it must be important.

Every magnet has 2 poles
According to the laws of physics, there is no reason why there shouldn’t be a magnet with just one pole. But except for magnets created in a lab, only magnets with two poles have been found in nature. Magnets create a magnetic field which travels in a direction, that ‘flow’ out one end and into the other, then back through the magnet. What pole it is, whether North or South, is a function of whether the magnetic field is flowing in or out at that point. Cutting a magnet in half creates new poles where the center was. You end up with 2 smaller magnets, each with a north and south pole.
In 1982, researchers at Stanford University, California, thought they’d detected a monopole magnet, but since nothing like it was ever discovered again most physicists believed it to be a fluke.
More recently, researchers from Oxford and Princeton described a system in a lattice of holmium titanate. This system appears to allow for a magnetic monopole to move freely around inside at certain temperatures. However, that is only a theory since this so called system has been found yet. So why don’t magnets have just one pole?? The question continues to pester physicists.

International Ants
Argentine ants look like regular ants. But they’re possibly the only species who can compete with us in their quest for world domination. Argentine ants have colonized over three continents and all belong to the same inter-related colony. They refuse to fight one another but will voraciously attack other species and have become a significant pest.
The colony of super ants were native to South America but people have unintentionally introduced the ants to all continents except Antarctica. The enormous extent of the colony is paralleled only by human society. The ants all share the same genetic traits and are essentially the same ant population. In Europe, one vast colony of Argentine ants is thought to stretch for 6,000km (3,700 miles) along the Mediterranean coast. Another in the US, known as the “Californian large”, extends over 900km (560 miles) along the coast of California. A third huge colony exists along the entire west coast of Japan. Even if they grew up thousands of miles from each other, when scientists put them together they do not fight but are extremely aggressive with ants from other species. As if that weren’t strange enough if they are all from the same colony, how do they maintain their social structure?
Besides that, usually small organisms living outside their native environment usually evolve rapidly. The genetic code of the Argentine ants today hasn’t changed much for thousands of years.

What are Space´s Mysteries UNSOLVED?

Space is one of the vast spaces where a human being has searched for years learning many things about our planet and how we live in here. Still, many mysteries remain. Check out these unsolved mysteries of space! Do aliens have anything to do with these science mysteries of the universe?

The Galactic Phantom
While comets might be some of the more familiar objects we know of in space, and people have been observing them for thousands of years, the question is, where are these comets all coming from? And if their surface material starts to vaporize as they travel, it means they must have formed farther away, where they would have existed for most of their life.
In time, these observations led to the theory that far beyond the Sun and planets, there exists an invisible. hypothetical expanse of space, made up of a large cloud of icy material and rock.
Known as the Oort Cloud, scientists believe it exists as it would be the only plausible explanation for comets that follow a strange orbit in sync with a massive celestial cloud.
Everything in our solar system also has a faint gravitational connection to the Oort Cloud and is possibly surrounded by it. Kind of a lot of responsibility for something that we’re not even sure exists. If the Oort Cloud doesn’t exist, then where are comets coming from? And what is causing the faint gravitational connections caused by the galactic phantom?

Dark Flow
Astronomers have observed that galaxy clusters are constantly moving towards a point in the southern constellations of Centaurus and Hydra at a million mph. They have no idea what is causing this mysterious motion of galaxy clusters and have called it the Dark Flow.
Research led by Alexander Kashlinsky at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, tracks this collective motion that appears to be independent of the expansion of the universe and its direction is still not certain. We don’t know if these galaxies are coming or going. Also, they aren’t slowing down.
What makes this really strange—as if it wasn’t already pretty weird—is that the present distribution of mass in our universe does not account for dark flow. This suggests that an external source outside our universe is influencing and moving matter from our vicinity.
Kashlinsky suggests that our universe exists in a bubble, rubbing up against other bubbles formed during the big bang. He believes that our universe is expanding within this bubble and the large thing pulling at the galaxies might be in another bubble, influencing their motion and pulling them towards whatever it is. But of course it’s just a theory, so if you have any ideas, please let us know!

We only see 4% of the universe
The stars, planets, and galaxies that we see when we look up at the night sky make up just 4% of the universe. Most of the universe is made of things that we can’t see, detect, or understand.
The other 96% is considered dark energy and dark matter which account for the vast majority of the universe. While these things can’t be seen, astronomers infer their presence because of their gravitational influences on the little bits of the universe that we can see.
Dark matter was sort-of discovered in the 60s and 70s. In theory it is what keeps galaxies together. Astronomer Vera Rubin discovered that stars on the outskirt of galaxies move at the same speed as stars closer to the center of those galaxies. This should make the galaxies wildly unstable but they aren’t. The only explanation is some unseen material exerting a gravitational force although scientists have no idea what it’s made of. Many people have spent their entire career trying to figure out what it is. The Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator in Geneva may finally solve the puzzle.
In the mid-1990s, researchers were looking into how fast the universe was expanding and determine whether or not it would one day pull back into itself in a “Big Crunch”. What they discovered was that the universe’s expansion was accelerating. This should be impossible because the gravity of all the mass in the cosmos should be pulling the universe back inward. The solution was that there must be something pulling and counteracting the effects of gravity, so they came up with the concept of dark energy.
What scientists know for sure is that these two things they know nothing about, account for most of the universe.

 Hole in space
Astronomers have discovered an empty section of space which is missing around 10,000 galaxies. The ‘supervoid’, which is 1.8 billion light-years across, is too big to fit into predicted models and should be too big to even exist.
Scientists are baffled about what it is and why it is so barren. Other supervoids have been found before but this is the largest by far.

What is The Schumann Resonance?

Planet Earth is full of life in every place we search for it. As many of you may not know Earth has a heartbeat, yes a heartbeat ladies and gentleman created by the electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere. This heartbeat is known as Schumann Resonance.

Earth has a heartbeat
The planet Earth pulses with a special kind of resonant wave. The beat is a quasi-standing electromagnetic wave that beats at around 8 cycles per second. When lightning strikes the earth around 4 million times a day, it creates electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere. These waves are caught between the ground and the upper atmosphere, sixty miles up. Most of them just dissipate but others with the right wavelength and frequency keep going and get bigger and bigger. They are standing waves that pulse, creating the amazing illusion of a heartbeat, known as the Schumann Resonance. Scientist thought it was always confined to the planet Earth, trapped under the ionosphere but in 2011 NASA scientists detected the waves 500 miles up in space. There is also an amazing Superdeep Hole in Germany drilled by the German Continental Deep Drilling Program, one of the most amazing geoscientific projects ever. The project’s goal was to grant scientists the opportunity to study the planet earth’s crust, the effects of stress on layers of rock and observe any abnormalities along the way. A Dutch artist wanted to know what the planet sounded like, so arranged to have a geophone lowered into the hole to record ultrasonic waves. The sound eerily resembles a heartbeat.

Largest living thing
Forget blue whales and giant redwood trees. The largest living thing on planet Earth is a humungous, amazing fungus. Scientists had never really paid much attention until recently when they realized how large they could get. Known as honey fungus, the large clumps of yellowish brownish mushrooms that appear above the ground are the fruits, so to speak, of much larger organisms. Mycelia are amazing underground networks of tubular filaments that spread out and if they come into contact with another genetically identical mycelia, they can fuse together to form one individual. The honey fungus tunnels underground causing massive tree die-offs and destroying gardens. It also tastes amazing in spaghetti sauce! The team that investigated a wide spread tree die off in Oregon discovered one organism that covered an area of 3.7 sq. miles and was somewhere between 1,900 and 8,650 years old! Not really specific but even 1900 years old is impressive!

Humans are not the only ones responsible for wide-scale extinctions
The Great Oxygenation Event, was the appearance of dioxygen (02)in Earth’s atmosphere. The actual causes are still under debate but it has something to do with oceanic cyanobacteria which became the first microbes to produce oxygen by photosynthesis about 2.3 billion years ago, about 200 million years before the GOE. This extra oxygen they started creating (after a confusing chemical process that we don’t have time to get into) started building up in the atmosphere which set the original atmosphere off balance. Earth’s skies used to be orange full of hydrocarbon particles and iron supporting anaerobic life. All of this oxygen was toxic to these organisms and wiped out most of the anaerobic inhabitants. Cyanobacteria is, therefore, responsible for one of the most significant extinction events in history. Within 200 million years, life before then was wiped out, transforming the orange skies into blue and laid the foundation for aerobic organisms and life the way it exists today.

Creeping Magnetic Pole
Earth’s the North Pole is moving as the ice melts and Earth’s distribution of mass changes. So you can still travel north to go the North pole but will also have to head eastward. Earth rotates on an invisible axis and the places where the axis intersects with the planet’s surface are the north and south poles. Due to the Earth’s wobble, these spots drift around in cycles. Scientists pinpoint the geographic north and south poles by taking long term averages of the rotational positions. Over the past 100 years, the poles have wandered about a few centimeters a year and would shift back and forth. Since 2000, it’s been moving about 10 centimeters a year. If ice disappears from one part of the spinning Earth and resettles elsewhere as water, the planet shifts on its axis toward the place where it lost mass. Scientists are still trying to determine what repercussions this may have regarding climate change and how to apply this to our GPS and satellite systems.

The driest place on Earth…….

What are the Top 10 Most Dangerous Animals in the World?

Top 10 World’s Most Dangerous Animals

Ever wondered what animals kill the most people? Between the lion, great white shark, black mamba snake, and the hippopotamus, which animal do you think is the deadliest? Or are the most aggressive animals more unique, like the cape buffalo, box jellyfish or deathstalker scorpion? Watch the counts down ten animals you should avoid. Or, to put it another way: ten animals that will straight up kill you.

#10. Deathstalker Scorpion
#9. Saltwater Crocodile
#8. African Elephant
#7. Hippopotamus
#6. Cape Buffalo
#5. Great White Shark
#4. African Lion
#3, #2 & #1??

What do You Know about Your Body?

Our body is complex as well as fascinating it keeps us moving and thinking, meanwhile it digests our food. It is stronger than we think, our skin will not rip when we stretch every day, our body is a magnificent machine. Watch the video and read amazing facts about our body. You won’t believe what it is capable of!

The Brain
While you may feel that as you get older, you get wiser, the truth is that we actually lose our intelligence as we age. By the age of eighteen, the brain stops growing, but it never gets a break. On average, an adult human loses more than 1,000 brain cells, every single day which adds up over the years.
Our brain is being used continuously, even while sleeping or watching TV. As you sleep, your brain works overtime to rebuild its ability to function at full power during the day, all while producing REM dreams to keep you entertained (or scared).
Your brain actually works hardest first thing in the morning right when you wake up, quickly putting all the pieces together for your normal daytime functions to run at their best. In fact, the brain is working so hard that while you are groggily reaching for your cup of coffee, it is building up enough electricity to power a small light bulb. Just like the light bulb symbol we use to represent a great idea, ta da! The brain uses 20% of all the blood and oxygen in your body throughout your lifetime to run at peak efficiency, however it only takes up 2% of your total weight. And while it may sound scary that we’re losing 1,000 brain cells per 24 hours, the brain can still hold 1 quadrillion, that’s 1 million billion, separate bits of long term memory information.
Skin
What is the largest organ? Believe it or not, it’s your skin. Yes, the same casing that protects your liver, heart, and kidney’s is one and the same. Your most exposed organ is so big that there’s enough skin on the average adult man to cover twenty square feet. The average female is not far behind with 17 square feet. There’s so much skin that it makes up 12% of your total body weight. And it’s constantly changing, constantly renewing and removing the old skin. Think of it like a living carpet. Every few seconds your skin regenerates and replaces over 45,000 cells and sheds over 600,000 particles every single hour. Most of the dust under our beds is actually our very own skin. And skin is actually to thank for body odor, due to a bacteria on it that creates the smell when it mixes with our sweat. Our sweat itself is odorless. Scars remain due to the underlying collagen not being replaced even with the consistent change on top.
Body Heat
The body needs to stay warm to keep us alive, but that temperature and where it’s regulated fluctuates constantly. On average, normal body heat is known to be around 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit, give or take a degree, but you also produce heat from daily activities: exercising, sweating, exhaling, digesting food, and even urinating. That extra energy and heat produced puts out a temperature that is actually so high it’s enough to boil a half gallon of water in thirty minutes. This makes your body the perfect example of the laws of thermodynamics. Emotions also have a say on your body temperature. Happiness warms your body up the most, while depression cools you way down. All the other emotions in between cause a different pattern of heat in your torso and extremities. Speaking of in between! A man’s testicles actually hang between to keep them cool, because sperm would die at the regular body temperature.
The Heart
The actual heart looks a lot less romantic than the ones we get on Valentine’s Day, but the reality of just how much it does is incredible. In one year a heart beats 40 million times, which for a long, healthy life equals over 2 billion pumps. This is all at a normal, resting heart rate. The average for both men and women is 2.6 billion heartbeats, but that number increases depending on how much and how often you exercise. That equals to quite a bit of blood pulsing through your veins, enough to make even the bravest of us pass out. So much blood it would take drinking 4 cups of water every day for four months to equal the same amount of blood your heart pumps through your body every single hour. In your lifetime you will have pumped enough blood through your body to fill a dozen oil super tankers. That’s 200 train tank cars. Or 15 million barrels. So, a lot. Why is so much blood needed for one body? Well, one adult body is host to 100,000 miles of blood vessels, so one blood cell has quite a long way to travel. Every single day the heart creates enough energy to drive a truck 20 miles. Do ever listen to music and realize you are tapping your fingers or your toes to the beat? Your heart does the same thing. Your heart beat will actually change and mimic the music you are listening to.

What are The Most Terrifying Historical Medical Practices?

In the past, many incredible and terrible things were used to cure. We will talk about some of them in this article. Did you know that cigarettes and opium were used to heal people? Or that nose job surgery and caesarean sections were available during ancient Rome? Or that Hersman of the Anus was an actual job? Check out some of the craziest, most disturbing practices in medical history!

Did you know that cigarettes and opium were used to heal people? Or that nose job surgery and caesarean sections were available during ancient Rome? Or that Hersman of the Anus was an actual job? Check out some of the craziest, most disturbing practices in medical history!

Did you know that smoking was actually good for you? And that by attaching your arm to your face you can actually get a new nose? Here are 6 surprising facts in medical history! 6) Cataract surgery was possible in the sixth century BC One of the oldest known medical textbooks is the Sushruta Samhita, written in Sanskrit from India. It is believed that it was written around 600 BC by Sushruta, who is thought to have been a physician and teacher working in a city in Northern India. His book provides detailed information on medicine, surgery, pharmacology and patient management from back in the day. Quite an incredible book! Sushruta recommended that his students practice their surgical skills on fruit, dead animals, and leather bags filled with water before practicing on real patients. Thank goodness! That wouldn’t make me nervous at all! One of the surgeries described in his book is cataract surgery. The patient had to look at the tip of his nose while the surgeon, held the eyelids apart with his (or her) fingers and used a needle to pierce the eyeball from the side. They would then sprinkle the eye with breast milk (yes you heard right), and put herbal medication on it. The surgeon used the tool to scrape out the clouded lens until the eye looked clear. During recovery the patient had to try not to cough, sneeze, or practically even breathe to avoid causing pressure in the eye. If the operation was successful, the patient would regain some vision, even if it wasn’t perfect. Hey, we’ll take it! 5) If you want a cure for everything, try theriac Emperor Nero’s physician Andromachus developed a potion with 64 ingredients, which became known as theriac. Most of the ingredients were herbal and probably not that exciting but, it also contained opium, and viper’s flesh. At first people though it was some kind of joke but during the times of plague it really became popular. It started to become known as a special and expensive cure for whatever you had. The opium is what probably made people feel better because opium helps to numb pain and help stop coughing and diarrhea. So I don’t know about the vipers flesh, but the opium is probably why people thought it was so amazing. By the 12th century, Venice was the leading exporter and theriac was a well-known concoction in European, Arabic and Chinese medicine. Theriac remained in some European pharmacies until the late 19th century. 4) Ugandan surgeons developed life-saving caesarean operations Birth by caesarian dates back to the time of the Caesars, when Roman law required the procedure to be carried out only if a woman died in childbirth.

Over the centuries, reports occasionally surfaced of caesarean sections saving the lives of both mother and baby, but even after the introduction of antiseptic methods and anaesthesia, caesareans remained a dangerous last resort. However in 1884 a white missionary doctor in Uganda went to a conference in France and reported that the operation was carried out with the intention of saving both lives. An African surgeon used banana wine as a disinfectant (and made the mother drink it a partial anesthesia.). He then made a vertical incision, going through the abdominal wall and part of the uterine wall, then opened it up just enough to take the baby out. They also removed the placenta and squeezed the uterus to promote contraction. According to the Doctors account, the mother and her baby were still doing well when he left the village 11 days later. The procedure appears to have been developed by the Banyoro people – quite a hit to the British ego since they thought everyone in the colonies were savages. 3) Herdsman of the Anus was actually a medical specialist position in Ancient Egypt Egypt’s system of medicine was the first to be set down in writing, but its history remained obscure until hieroglyphs started being decoded in the early 19th century. Since then, documents and depictions in tombs have shown that doctors had an extensive knowledge of disease and a rich pharmacopoeia of herbs, animal products, and minerals they would use. Doctor’s prescriptions were prepared according to precise recipes that included long lists of ingredients and their measurements, and took many forms including pills, ointments, inhalations and enemas.

What Is The Greatest Paradox of Science? By Michio Kaku

Observation requires consciousness, and people make the observation. The greatest paradox of science says that how can you qualify something you have not seen. the example goes to a cat in a box, we do not know whether it is dead or alive, So physicist says that the cat is both until they open the box and find for sure what happens with it. The same happens to electrons they can speed up or down and be at both places at the same time. Einstein thought this was stupid, but he was wrong this can really happen.

“Michio Kaku (/ˈmi ˈkɑːk/; born January 24, 1947) is an American theoretical physicist, futurist, and popularizer of science. He is a professor of theoretical physics at the City College of New York and CUNY Graduate Center. Kaku has written several books about physics and related topics, has made frequent appearances on radio, television, and film, and writes online blogs and articles. He has written three New York Times best sellers: Physics of the Impossible (2008), Physics of the Future (2011), and The Future of the Mind(2014). Kaku has hosted several TV specials for the BBC, the Discovery Channel, the History Channel, and the Science Channel.” Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michio_Kaku

What Happened To The Fossils At The Grand Canyon? Bill Nye

In the Grand Canyon, there are many animal fossils and the interesting thing is that they are so well arranged that one fossil does not cover the other, not a single one. In a great flood we all expect that animals would try to swim higher but in this case, not one single animal did.

“William Sanford Nye  (born November 27, 1955), popularly known as Bill Nye the Science Guy, is an American science communicator, television presenter, and mechanical engineer. He is best known as the host of the PBS children’s science show Bill Nye the Science Guy (1993–1998), and for his many subsequent appearances in popular media as a science educator.

Nye began his career as a mechanical engineer for Boeing Corporation in Seattle, where he invented a hydraulic resonance suppressor tube used on 747 airplanes.[3] In 1986, Nye left Boeing to pursue comedy, writing and performing jokes and bits for the local sketch television show Almost Live!, where he would regularly conduct wacky science experiments. Nye aspired to become the next Mr. Wizard and with the help of several producers successfully pitched the children’s television program Bill Nye the Science Guy to KCTS-TV, channel 9, Seattle’s public television station. The show—which proudly proclaimed in its theme song that “science rules!”—ran from 1994 to 1999 in national TV syndication. Known for its “high-energy presentation and MTV-paced segments,] the program became a hit for both kids and adults. The show was critically acclaimed and was nominated for 23 Emmy Awards, winning nineteen.” Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Nye

The Poetic Philosophy Behind The Pursuit of Scientific Discovery

“Expect science to give all the answers to the wonderful questions we have, where are we, where are we going, what the universe means and so on. The thing is we will become disillusion and look for some mystic answer to these problems.

People keep asking me are you looking for the ultimate laws of physics? I say No I am not, I am just looking to find out more about the world…….”

“Clinton Richard Dawkins FRS FRSL (born 26 March 1941) is an English ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and author. He is an emeritus fellow of New College, Oxford, and was the University of Oxford’s Professor for Public Understanding of Science from 1995 until 2008.

Dawkins first came to prominence with his 1976 book The Selfish Gene, which popularized the gene-centered view of evolution and introduced the term meme. With his book The Extended Phenotype (1982), he introduced into evolutionary biology the influential concept that the phenotypic effects of a gene are not necessarily limited to an organism’s body, but can stretch far into the environment. In 2006, he founded the Richard Dawkins Foundation for Reason and Science.” Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Dawkins

“Richard Phillips Feynman (/ˈfnmən/; May 11, 1918 – February 15, 1988) was an American theoretical physicist known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics for which he proposed the parton model. For his contributions to the development of quantum electrodynamics, Feynman, jointly with Julian Schwinger and Shin’ichirō Tomonaga, received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1965.”Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Feynman

Stephen Hawking

🌎 Flat Earth Theorist Neil deGrasse Tyson, Bill Nye.

 

Earth is flat because we are too small in height to even see the curvature. We are little creatures that crawl upon it and for all it is flat. Neil says that if you want to believe the Earth is flat then it is okay unless you are a public figure and will influence others with your ideas.

“William Sanford Nye (born November 27, 1955), popularly known as Bill Nye the Science Guy, is an American science communicator, television presenter, and mechanical engineer. He is best known as the host of the PBS children’s science show Bill Nye the Science Guy (1993–1998), and for his many subsequent appearances in popular media as a science educator.

Nye began his career as a mechanical engineer for Boeing Corporation in Seattle, where he invented a hydraulic resonance suppressor tube used on 747 airplanes.[3] In 1986, Nye left Boeing to pursue comedy, writing and performing jokes and bits for the local sketch television show Almost Live!, where he would regularly conduct wacky science experiments. Nye aspired to become the next Mr. Wizard and with the help of several producers successfully pitched the children’s television program Bill Nye the Science Guy to KCTS-TV, channel 9, Seattle’s public television station. The show—which proudly proclaimed in its theme song that “science rules!”—ran from 1994 to 1999 in national TV syndication. Known for its “high-energy presentation and MTV-paced segments,” the program became a hit for both kids and adults. The show was critically acclaimed and was nominated for 23 Emmy Awards, winning nineteen.

Neil deGrasse Tyson (/ˈnl dəˈɡræs ˈtsən/; born October 5, 1958) is an American astrophysicist, author, and science communicator. Since 1996, he has been the Frederick P. Rose Director of the Hayden Planetarium at the Rose Center for Earth and Space in New York City. The center is part of the American Museum of Natural History, where Tyson founded the Department of Astrophysics in 1997 and has been a research associate in the department since 2003. ” Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neil_deGrasse_Tyson

 

 

Are Humans Going to go Extinct? Dr. Michio Kaku Responds.

Dr. Michio responds to a scary question: Will humans beings go extinct? They just might turn into some type of digitalized form of life?


Michio Kaku (/ˈmi ˈkɑːk/; born January 24, 1947) is an American theoretical physicist, futurist, and popularizer of science. He is a professor of theoretical physics at the City College of New York and CUNY Graduate Center. Kaku has written several books about physics and related topics, has made frequent appearances on radio, television, and film, and writes online blogs and articles. He has written three New York Times best sellers: Physics of the Impossible (2008), Physics of the Future (2011), and The Future of the Mind(2014). Kaku has hosted several TV specials for the BBC, the Discovery Channel, the History Channel, and the Science Channel.

The Other Big Ideas of Dr. Michio Kaku

“The people that inspire me are the people that see science is about freedom, liberation, and ideas. Science creates awareness on the people who are not aware.” – Dr. Michi Kaku, a theoretical physicist, almost vibrates when trying to explain the importance of science to man kind. Check out the video.

Michio Kaku is theoretical physicist obsesed with the future and an evangelist of science. Kaku, also professor at The City College of New York also teaches at CUNY Graduate Center. After Authoring several books about physics and related topics, has become somewhat of a pop icon in main stream media, not uncommon for New York Times best seller authors, but quite rare on the matters of Physics of the Impossible (2008), Physics of the Future (2011), and The Future of the Mind (2014). Kaku has hosted several TV specials for the BBC, the Discovery Channel, the History Channel, and the Science Channel. Source: Wikipedia.org

 

Does Nasa Drives Our Economy? Neil deGrasse Tyson

Nasa drives our economy, yes Sir. With the culture, Nasa handles the culture of innovation and that culture of innovation is the one that drives the economies on our actual century. What happens in that innovation benefits the entire nation in a powerful way.

“Neil deGrasse Tyson (/ˈnl dəˈɡræs ˈtsən/; born October 5, 1958) is an American astrophysicist, author, and science communicator. Since 1996, he has been the Frederick P. Rose Director of the Hayden Planetarium at the Rose Center for Earth and Space in New York City. The center is part of the American Museum of Natural History, where Tyson founded the Department of Astrophysics in 1997 and has been a research associate in the department since 2003.

Born and raised in New York City, Tyson became interested in astronomy at the age of nine after a visit to the Hayden Planetarium. After graduating from the Bronx High School of Science, where he was editor-in-chief of the Physical Science Journal, he completed a bachelor’s degree in physics at Harvard University in 1980. After receiving a master’s degree in astronomy at the University of Texas at Austin in 1983, he earned his master’s (1989) and doctorate (1991) in astrophysics at Columbia University. For the next three years, he was a postdoctoral research associate at Princeton University. In 1994, he joined the Hayden Planetarium as a staff scientist and the Princeton faculty as a visiting research scientist and lecturer. In 1996, he became director of the planetarium and oversaw its $210-million reconstruction project, which was completed in 2000.” Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neil_deGrasse_Tyson

 

What are the Top 10 most MIND-BLOWING Facts About Stephen Hawking?

Check out here the Top 10 MIND-BLOWING Facts about Stephen Hawking!

Stephen Hawking is considered to be one of the smartest people ever, one of the most gifted minds in history. So, it’s not surprising that these facts on Stephen Hawking, his theories, his beliefs and his achievements will blow your mind! Everything from the fact that Hawking believes in aliens, how he’s never won a Nobel Prize or even that he was a mediocre student is covered here in this brief history of time – err, of Stephen Hawking!

#10. He Believes in Aliens
#9. He’s a Pop Culture Icon
#8. He’s a Betting Man
#7. He Was a Mediocre Student
#6. He Was a Star Rower
#5. He’s British
#4. He’s a Prolific Writer, Even Though He Can’t Physically Write or Speak
#3, #2, #1. ????

 

Find out more in the video below!

Do Scientists Have Thug Life Moments?

Neil deGrasse Tyson, Bill Nye, Richard Dawkins, Stephen Hawking all great and brilliant man, but as we all know they are humans and they have thug life moments! Watch the video and have a funny moment watching these guys.

Who are they?

Neil deGrasse Tyson (/ˈnl dəˈɡræs ˈtsən/; born October 5, 1958) is an American astrophysicist, author, and science communicator. Since 1996, he has been the Frederick P. Rose Director of the Hayden Planetarium at the Rose Center for Earth and Space in New York City. The center is part of the American Museum of Natural History, where Tyson founded the Department of Astrophysics in 1997 and has been a research associate in the department since 2003.

William Sanford Nye (born November 27, 1955), popularly known as Bill Nye the Science Guy, is an American science communicator, television presenter, and mechanical engineer. He is best known as the host of the PBS children’s science show Bill Nye the Science Guy (1993–1998), and for his many subsequent appearances in popular media as a science educator.

Clinton Richard Dawkins FRS FRSL (born 26 March 1941) is an English ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and author. He is an emeritus fellow of New College, Oxford, and was the University of Oxford’s Professor for Public Understanding of Science from 1995 until 2008.

Dawkins first came to prominence with his 1976 book The Selfish Gene, which popularized the gene-centered view of evolution and introduced the term meme. With his book The Extended Phenotype (1982), he introduced into evolutionary biology the influential concept that the phenotypic effects of a gene are not necessarily limited to an organism’s body, but can stretch far into the environment. In 2006, he founded the Richard Dawkins Foundation for Reason and Science.

Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA (/ˈstvən ˈhɔːkɪŋ/; born 8 January 1942) is an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, author and Director of Research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology within the University of Cambridge.[16][17] His scientific works include a collaboration with Roger Penrose on gravitational singularity theorems in the framework of general relativity and the theoretical prediction that black holes emit radiation, often called Hawking radiation. Hawking was the first to set out a theory of cosmology explained by a union of the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. He is a vigorous supporter of the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics.

What is The String Theory? By Edward Witten

Edward Witten tells us about string theory, and frames it as an attempt to make sense of all the phenomena we see in nature as one unified theory

“Edward Witten (/ˈwɪtən/; born August 26, 1951) is an American theoretical physicist and professor of mathematical physics at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.

Witten is a researcher in string theory, quantum gravity, supersymmetric quantum field theories, and other areas of mathematical physics.

In addition to his contributions to physics, Witten’s work has significantly impacted pure mathematics.  In 1990 he became the first and so far the only physicist to be awarded a Fields Medal by the International Mathematical Union. In 2004, Time magazine stated that Witten is widely thought to be the world’s smartest living theoretical physicist.” Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Witten

Who is the biggest critic of religion? Sam Harris, this is why.

“I think it is terrible that the president of the United States started speaking the way I speak. He can not say we are at war with Islam I got new, but we need a clear appraisal of our situation in the World and I don’t hear the appraisal coming from religious moderates and religious liberates. I don’t see the purchase point theologically, where they can stand and say: Listen, guys, you have it wrong because your interpretation is false. ” Sam Harris.

“Samuel Benjamin Harris (born April 9, 1967) is an American author, philosopher, and neuroscientist. His first book, The End of Faith (2004), is a critique of organized religion. In The Moral Landscape (2010), Harris argues that science can help answer moral problems and aid human well-being. He published a long-form essay Lying in 2011, the short book Free Will in 2012, Waking Up: A Guide to Spirituality Without Religion in 2014 and, with British activist Maajid Nawaz, Islam and the Future of Tolerance: A Dialogue in 2015.

Harris is a critic of religion and proponent of the liberty to criticize it. Harris is also a proponent of secular meditation practices adopted from Buddhism (especially Vipassana), has devoted two years of his life to silent practice in India. He has also praised Advaita Vedanta and Dzogchen, as “they contain empirical insights about the nature of consciousness that do not depend upon faith.” He is the co-founder and chief executive of Project Reason, a nonprofit organization that promotes science and secularism, and host of the Waking Up podcast. He is considered a member of the “Four Horsemen of New Atheism”, alongside Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett, and the late Christopher Hitchens.”Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sam_Harris

Is Science The Basis of Innovation? Bill Nye

The United States needs more and more engineers to continue to make science and innovation and creative things will continue to happen. Science education is necessary in order to continue creating and understanding the world that surrounds us. Bill Nye explains various themes related to science education and astronomy.

“William Sanford Nye[2] (born November 27, 1955), popularly known as Bill Nye the Science Guy, is an American science communicator, television presenter, and mechanical engineer. He is best known as the host of the PBS children’s science show Bill Nye the Science Guy (1993–1998), and for his many subsequent appearances in popular media as a science educator.

Nye began his career as a mechanical engineer for Boeing Corporation in Seattle, where he invented a hydraulic resonance suppressor tube used on 747 airplanes.[3] In 1986, Nye left Boeing to pursue comedy, writing and performing jokes and bits for the local sketch television show Almost Live!, where he would regularly conduct wacky science experiments. Nye aspired to become the next Mr. Wizard and with the help of several producers successfully pitched the children’s television program Bill Nye the Science Guy to KCTS-TV, channel 9, Seattle’s public television station. The show—which proudly proclaimed in its theme song that “science rules!”—ran from 1994 to 1999 in national TV syndication. Known for its “high-energy presentation and MTV-paced segments,”[4] the program became a hit for both kids and adults. The show was critically acclaimed and was nominated for 23 Emmy Awards, winning nineteen.” Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Nye

 

 

Sean M. Carroll

The universe does not care about you.

“Sean Michael Carroll (/ˈkærəl/; born October 5, 1966) is a cosmologist and physics professor specializing in dark energy and general relativity. He is a research professor in the Department of Physics at the California Institute of Technology. He has been a contributor to the physics blog Cosmic Variance and has published in scientific journals and magazines such as NatureThe New York TimesSky & Telescope, and New Scientist.

He has appeared on the History Channel’s The Universe, Science Channel’s Through the Wormhole with Morgan FreemanCloser to Truth (broadcast on PBS),[2] and Comedy Central’s The Colbert Report. Carroll is the author of Spacetime And Geometry, a graduate-level textbook in general relativity, and has also recorded lectures for The Great Courses on cosmology, the physics of time, and the Higgs boson.[3] He is also the author of three popular books: one on the arrow of time entitled From Eternity to Here, one on the Higgs boson entitled The Particle at the End of the Universe, and one on science and philosophy entitled The Big Picture: On the Origins of Life, Meaning, and the Universe Itself.” Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sean_M._Carroll

“We are part of the Universe we can not stand outside of it in any way and the way that science got there is basically through realizing that human beings are not that smart, you are not Vulcans you are not Mr. Spock and you are not perfectly logical.” Sean M. Carroll

How does Gravity Work? Great Easy and Exact Explanation Here.

Brian Greene is a great physicist and theorist. In this video, he explains his latest research on the field. Learn more about this interesting man and his interesting arguments.

Brian Randolph Greene[1] (born February 9, 1963) is an American theoretical physicist and string theorist. He has been a professor at Columbia University since 1996 and chairman of the World Science Festival since co-founding it in 2008. Greene has worked on mirror symmetry, relating two different Calabi–Yau manifolds (concretely, relating the conifold to one of its orbifolds). He also described the flop transition, a mild form of topology change, showing that topology in string theory can change at the conifold point

What are Carl Sagan’s Most Important Arguments?

Carl Sagan one of the best American astronomers, arguments on the Universe and his investigations. Watch the video and learn more about him and his best arguments.

Carl Edward Sagan (/ˈseɪɡən/; November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer, cosmologist, astrophysicist, astrobiologist, author, science popularizer, and science communicator in astronomy and other natural sciences. He is best known for his work as a science popularizer and communicator. His best known scientific contribution is research on extraterrestrial life, including experimental demonstration of the production of amino acids from basic chemicals by radiation. Sagan assembled the first physical messages sent into space: the Pioneer plaque and the Voyager Golden Record, universal messages that could potentially be understood by any extraterrestrial intelligence that might find them. Sagan argued the now accepted hypothesis that the high surface temperatures of Venus can be attributed to and calculated using the greenhouse effect
More: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Sagan