What is Electromagnetic Induction?

Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction in his honor the law was created. The process consists of placing a conductor in a changing magnetic field which causes the production of a voltage. This process induces the electrical current.

“Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor due to its dynamic interaction with a magnetic field.

Michael Faraday is generally credited with the discovery of induction in 1831, and James Clerk Maxwell mathematically described it as Faraday’s law of induction. Lenz’s law describes the direction of the induced field. Faraday’s law was later generalized to become the Maxwell-Faraday equation, one of the four Maxwell’s equations in James Clerk Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism.

Electromagnetic induction has found many applications in technology, including electrical components such as inductors and transformers, and devices such as electric motors and generators. Electromagnetic induction was first discovered by Michael Faraday, who made his discovery public in 1831. It was discovered independently by Joseph Henry in 1832.

In Faraday’s first experimental demonstration (August 29, 1831), he wrapped two wires around opposite sides of an iron ring or “torus” (an arrangement similar to a modern toroidal transformer). Based on his understanding of electromagnets, he expected that, when current started to flow in one wire, a sort of wave would travel through the ring and cause some electrical effect on the opposite side. He plugged one wire into a galvanometer and watched it as he connected the other wire to a battery. He saw a transient current, which he called a “wave of electricity” when he connected the wire to the battery and another when he disconnected it. This induction was due to the change in magnetic flux that occurred when the battery was connected and disconnected.  Within two months, Faraday found several other manifestations of electromagnetic induction. For example, he saw transient currents when he quickly slid a bar magnet in and out of a coil of wires, and he generated a steady (DC) current by rotating a copper disk near the bar magnet with a sliding electrical lead” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_induction

What Does Ampère’s Law Consists On?

Ampere´s Law consists of the “The magnetic field in space around an electric current is proportional to the electric current which serves as its source, just as the electric field in space is proportional to the charge which serves as its source. Ampere’s Law states that for any closed loop path, the sum of the length elements times the magnetic field in the direction of the length element is equal to the permeability times the electric current enclosed in the loop.”  https://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/magnetic/amplaw.html

“Hans Christian Oersted had just discovered the connection between electricity and magnetism. Meanwhile, a French physicist named André-Marie Ampère was experimenting with some wires, trying to learn more about the connection between current and the magnetic fields they create. Ampère would discover one of the most fundamental laws of electromagnetism: what we now call Ampère’s Law.

“In classical electromagnetism, Ampère’s circuital law (not to be confused with Ampère’s force law that André-Marie Ampèrediscovered in 1823) relates the integrated magnetic field around a closed loop to the electric current passing through the loop. James Clerk Maxwell (not Ampère) derived it using hydrodynamics in his 1861 paper “On Physical Lines of Force” and it is now one of the Maxwell equations, which form the basis of classical electromagnetism.

The original form of Maxwell’s circuital law, which he derived in his 1855 paper “On Faraday’s Lines of Force” based on an analogy to hydrodynamics, relates magnetic fields to electric currents that produce them. It determines the magnetic field associated with a given current or the current associated with a given magnetic field.

The original circuital law is only a correct law of physics in a magnetostatic situation, where the system is static except possibly for continuous steady currents within closed loops. For systems with electric fields that change over time, the original law (as given in this section) must be modified to include a term known as Maxwell’s correction ” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amp%C3%A8re%27s_circuital_law

Into The World of Magnets

You’re probably familiar with the basics of magnets already: They have a north pole and a south pole. Two of the same pole will repel each other, while opposites attract. Only certain materials, especially those that contain iron, can be magnets. And there’s a magnetic field around Earth, which is why you can use a compass to figure out which way is north.

“Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields. Electric currents and the magnetic moments of elementary particles give rise to a magnetic field, which acts on other currents and magnetic moments.

The most familiar effects occur in ferromagnetic materials, which are strongly attracted by magnetic fields and can be magnetized to become permanent magnets, producing magnetic fields themselves. Only a few substances are ferromagnetic; the most common ones are iron, nickel and cobalt and their alloys. The prefix Ferro- refers to iron, because permanent magnetism was first observed in lodestone, a form of a natural iron ore called magnetite, Fe3O4.

Although ferromagnetism is responsible for most of the effects of magnetism encountered in everyday life, all other materials are influenced to some extent by a magnetic field, by several other types of magnetism. Paramagnetic substances such as aluminum and oxygen are weakly attracted to an applied magnetic field; diamagnetic substances such as copper and carbon are weakly repelled; while antiferromagnetic materials such as chromium and spin glasses have a more complex relationship with a magnetic field. The force of a magnet on paramagnetic, diamagnetic, antiferromagnetic materials is usually too weak to be felt and can be detected only by laboratory instruments, so in everyday life, these substances are often described as non-magnetic.

The magnetic state (or magnetic phase) of a material depends on temperature and other variables such as pressure and the applied magnetic field. A material may exhibit more than one form of magnetism as these variables change.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetism