What is the Greenhouse Gas Effect?

“The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet’s atmosphere warms the planet’s surface to a temperature above what it would be without its atmosphere.

If a planet’s atmosphere contains radiatively active gases (i.e., greenhouse gases) they will radiate energy in all directions. Part of this radiation is directed towards the surface, warming it. The intensity of the downward radiation – that is, the strength of the greenhouse effect – will depend on the atmosphere’s temperature and on the amount of greenhouse gases that the atmosphere contains.

Earth’s natural greenhouse effect is critical to supporting life. Human activities, primarily the burning of fossil fuels and clearing of forests, have intensified the natural greenhouse effect, causing global warming.

The mechanism is named after a faulty analogy with the effect of solar radiation passing through glass and warming a greenhouse. The way a greenhouse retains heat is fundamentally different, as a greenhouse works mostly by reducing airflow and thus retaining warm air inside the structure.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse_effect

What are The Most Expensive Minerals in The World?

In the mining world, a lot of precious gems have been exploited. Thre value depends on many characteristics that only experts evaluate. In this article, you learn what are those so expensive gems that come deep from mother earth´s crust.

“Black opals are the rarest form of all precious opals and are characterized by their dark body tone and rich colors or ‘fire’. Almost all of the world’s black opals are mined in Australia (which also is the world’s largest overall producer of opals, at 90 percent).

Value: Up to AUD $20,000/US $15,700 per carat

Painite is a red-colored, hexagonal-shaped gem, thought to be the rarest on the planet. It was named after the British gemologist Arthur CD Pain, who discovered it in Myanmar in 1950. It has only ever been found in that region, making it incredibly hard to locate.

Value: US $50,000-$60,000 per carat

Rhodium is a rare, silvery-white element that is corrosion resistant. It also one of the rarest elements on earth and is used in catalytic converters, glass production, and to plate sterling silver jewelry. It is principally sourced in South Africa, the Ural Mountains, and North America.

Value: US $1,360 per troy ounce (1 troy ounce = 1.097 ounce)

Undoubtedly one of the most popular minerals in the world, gold has long been treasured throughout history. It is not the world’s most expensive mineral, but its enduring appeal means it is considered a ‘safe haven’ investment, as well as an object of beauty. Yellow gold is the most popular, although it comes in a range of other hues, including white gold and rose gold.

Value: US $1,292 per troy ounce” https://www.miningpeople.com.au/news/the-10-most-expensive-minerals-in-the-world



What is an Alexandrite Gemstone?

” Alexandrite, a strongly pleochroic (trichroic) gem, will exhibit emerald green, red and orange-yellow colors depending on viewing direction in partially polarised light. However, its most distinctive property is that it also changes color in artificial (tungsten/halogen) light compared to daylight. The color change from red to green is due to strong absorption of light in a narrow yellow portion of the spectrum, while allowing large bands of more blue-green and red wavelengths to be transmitted. Which of these prevails to give the perceived hue depends on the spectral balance of the illumination. Fine-quality alexandrite has a green to bluish-green color in daylight (relatively blue illumination of high color temperature), changing to a red to purplish-red color in incandescent light (relatively yellow illumination). However, fine-color material is extremely rare. Less-desirable stones may have daylight colors of yellowish-green and incandescent colors of brownish red.

Cymophane is popularly known as “cat’s eye”. This variety exhibits pleasing chatoyancy or opalescence that reminds one of the eye of a cat. When cut to produce a cabochon, the mineral forms a light-green specimen with a silky band of light extending across the surface of the stone.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chrysoberyl

What is an Opal?

” Opal is a hydrated amorphous form of silica (SiO2·nH2O); its water content may range from 3 to 21% by weight, but is usually between 6 and 10%. Because of its amorphous character, it is classed as a mineraloid, unlike crystalline forms of silica, which are classed as minerals. It is deposited at a relatively low temperature and may occur in the fissures of almost any kind of rock, being most commonly found with limonite, sandstone, rhyolite, marl, and basalt. Opal is the national gemstone of Australia.

The internal structure of precious opal makes it diffract light. Depending on the conditions in which it formed, it can take on many colors. Precious opal ranges from clear through white, gray, red, orange, yellow, green, blue, magenta, rose, pink, slate, olive, brown, and black. Of these hues, the black opals are the rarest, whereas white and greens are the most common. Opals vary in optical density from opaque to semitransparent.

Precious opal shows a variable interplay of internal colors, and though it is a mineraloid, it has an internal structure. At microscopic scales, precious opal is composed of silica spheres some 150 to 300 nm in diameter in a hexagonal or cubic close-packed lattice. It was shown by J. V. Sanders in the mid-1960s  that these ordered silica spheres produce the internal colors by causing the interference and diffraction of light passing through the microstructure of the opal. The regularity of the sizes and the packing of these spheres determines the quality of precious opal. Where the distance between the regularly packed planes of spheres is around half the wavelength of a component of visible light, the light of that wavelength may be subject to diffraction from the grating created by the stacked planes. The colors that are observed are determined by the spacing between the planes and the orientation of planes with respect to the incident light. The process can be described by Bragg’s law of diffraction.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opal

What is a Moonstone?

” Moonstone is a sodium potassium aluminum silicate, with the chemical formula (Na, K)AlSi3O8. Moonstone has been used in jewelry for millennia, including ancient civilizations. The Romans admired moonstone, as they believed it was born from solidified rays of the moon. Both the Romans and Greeks associated Moonstone with their lunar deities. In more recent history, the moonstone became popular during the Art Nouveau period; French goldsmith René Lalique and many others created a large quantity of jewelry using this stone.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moonstone_(gemstone)

What is an Aquamarine Gemstone?

” Aquamarine (from Latin: aqua marina, being, water: sea, i.e. sea water, marīna, from marīnus; of the sea.) is a blue or cyan variety of beryl. It occurs at most localities which yield ordinary beryl. The gem-gravel placer deposits of Sri Lanka contain aquamarine. Clear yellow beryl, such as that occurring in Brazil, is sometimes called aquamarine chrysolite. The deep blue version of aquamarine is called maxixe. Maxixe is commonly found in the country of Madagascar. Its color fades to white when exposed to sunlight or is subjected to heat treatment, though the color returns with irradiation.

The pale blue color of aquamarine is attributed to Fe2+. Fe3+ ions produce golden-yellow color, and when both Fe2+ and Fe3+ are present, the color is a darker blue as in Maxixe. Decoloration of maxixe by light or heat thus may be due to the charge transfer between Fe3+and Fe2+. Dark-blue maxixe color can be produced in green, pink or yellow beryl by irradiating it with high-energy particles (gamma rays, neutrons or even X-rays). 

In the United States, aquamarines can be found at the summit of Mt. Antero in the Sawatch Range in central Colorado. In Wyoming, aquamarine has been discovered in the Big Horn Mountains, near Powder River Pass. Another location within the United States is the Sawtooth Range near Stanley, Idaho, although the minerals are within a wilderness area which prevents collecting. In Brazil, there are mines in the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, and Bahia, and minorly in Rio Grande do Norte. The mines of Colombia, Zambia, Madagascar, Malawi, Tanzania, and Kenya also produce aquamarine.

The largest aquamarine of gemstone quality ever mined was found in Marambaia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in 1910. It weighed over 110 kg (240 lb), and its dimensions were 48.5 cm (19 in) long and 42 cm (17 in) in diameter. The largest cut aquamarine gem is the Dom Pedro aquamarine, now housed in the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of Natural History.”  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beryl#Aquamarine_and_maxixe

What is a Sapphire?

” Sapphire is a gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminum oxide (α-Al2O3). It is typically blue in color, but natural “fancy” sapphires also occur in yellow, purple, orange, and green colors; “party sapphires” show two or more colors. The only color which sapphire cannot be is red – as red-colored corundum is called ruby, another corundum variety. Pink colored corundum may be either classified as ruby or sapphire depending on locale. This variety in color is due to trace amounts of elements such as iron, titanium, chromium, copper, or magnesium.

Commonly, natural sapphires are cut and polished into gemstones and worn in jewelry. They also may be created synthetically in laboratories for industrial or decorative purposes in large crystal boules. Because of the remarkable hardness of sapphires – 9 on the Mohs scale (the third hardest mineral, after diamond at 10 and moissanite at 9.5) – sapphires are also used in some non-ornamental applications, such as infrared optical components, high-durability windows, wristwatch crystals and movement bearings, and very thin electronic wafers, which are used as the insulating substrates of very special-purpose solid-state electronics (especially integrated circuits and GaN-based LEDs).

Sapphire is the birthstone for September and the gem of the 45th anniversary. A sapphire jubilee occurs after 65 years.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sapphire


Like everything else that is powerful and made by humans, we once again dive into a fable of the good scientific people inventing a way to do something, in this case control global weather with surgical precision, to later be hijacked by some power-hungry moron who does not have enough mind power to wonder why the smarter sciencey men choose not to fuck with the weather. With recognizable actors and the traditional cinematic epic film score, this is yet another form of psychological palliative that at best might make us a bit more conscientious of our fragility as a planet but really might probably do more harm than its pro-green message.

Watch the OFFICIAL TRAILER 2 for GEOSTORM, starring Gerard Butler – in theaters October 20, 2017. — https://geostorm.movie https://facebook.com/geostormmovie https://twitter.com/geostormmovie https://instagram.com/geostormmovie After an unprecedented series of natural disasters threatened the planet, the world’s leaders came together to create an intricate network of satellites to control the global climate and keep everyone safe. But now, something has gone wrong—the system built to protect the Earth is attacking it, and it’s a race against the clock to uncover the real threat before a worldwide geostorm wipes out everything…and everyone along with it. Dean Devlin (writer/producer, “Independence Day”) makes his feature film directorial debut with suspense thriller “Geostorm,” starring Gerard Butler (“Olympus Has Fallen,” “300”), Jim Sturgess (“Cloud Atlas”), Abbie Cornish (“Limitless”), Alexandra Maria Lara (“Rush”), Daniel Wu (“The Man with the Iron Fists,” “Warcraft: The Beginning”), with Oscar nominees Ed Harris (“The Hours,” “Apollo 13”) and Andy Garcia (“The Godfather: Part III”). Butler stars as Jake, a scientist who, along with his brother, Max, played by Sturgess, is tasked with solving the satellite program’s malfunction. Cornish stars as Secret Service agent Sarah Wilson; Lara as Ute Fassbinder, the ISS astronaut who runs the space station; Wu as Cheng, the Hong Kong-based supervisor for the Dutch Boy Program; with Garcia as U.S. President Andrew Palma; and Harris as Secretary of State Leonard Dekkom.

The film also stars Adepero Oduye (“The Big Short,” “12 Years a Slave”), Amr Waked (“Lucy,” “Syriana”), Robert Sheehan (“The Mortal Instruments: City of Bones,” “Season of the Witch”) and Eugenio Derbez (“Instructions Not Included”). The film, written by Dean Devlin & Paul Guyot, is being produced by Skydance’s David Ellison, Devlin, and Skydance’s Dana Goldberg. Herbert W. Gains and Electric Entertainment’s Marc Roskin are the executive producers. Rachel Olschan of Electric Entertainment and Cliff Lanning co-produce. The behind-the-scenes creative team includes director of photography Roberto Schaefer (“Finding Neverland,” “Quantum of Solace”), production designer Kirk M. Petruccelli (“White House Down”), costume designer Susan Matheson (“The Big Short,” “Safehouse”) and VFX supervisor Jeffrey A. Okun (“Clash of the Titans,” “The Day the Earth Stood Still”). A Warner Bros. Pictures and Skydance presentation, “Geostorm” is a joint venture between Skydance and Electric Entertainment, Inc. Set to hit theaters October 20, 2017, it will be distributed in 3D and 2D in select theaters and IMAX, by Warner Bros. Pictures, a Warner Bros. Entertainment Company.

How are Diamonds Formed?

“Diamonds are formed at high temperature and pressure at depths of 140 to 190 kilometers (87 to 118 mi) in the Earth’s mantle. Carbon-containing minerals provide the carbon source, and the growth occurs over periods from 1 billion to 3.3 billion years (25% to 75% of the age of the Earth). Diamonds are brought close to the Earth’s surface through deep volcanic eruptions by a magma, which cools into igneous rocks known as kimberlites and lamproites. Diamonds can also be produced synthetically in an HPHT method which approximately simulates the conditions in the Earth’s mantle. An alternative and completely different growth technique is chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Several non-diamond materials, which include cubic zirconia and silicon carbide and are often called diamond simulants, resemble diamond in appearance and many properties. Special gemological techniques have been developed to distinguish natural diamonds, synthetic diamonds, and diamond simulants. The word is from the ancient Greek ἀδάμας – adámas“unbreakable”.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diamond

What Is Carbon Footprint?

Carbon footprint term appeared almost around 1960 and 1970´s, it means the number of gases that cause climate change, exactly the ones that cause our temperatures to rise. With time the instrument was modeled and it became well known. There are many other footprints too, those include water, human, organization, and others.

On our days it has become an instrument that many businesses use to learn of their emissions, how to reduce them and add an extra to the products and

services they produce. Carbon footprint consists of making an inventory of all the things used during a process. According to standards the limits of the study are:

Bussiness to business: This means from cradle to gate or from where the production starts. For example, coffee since it is cultivated in the estate, you count on all the supplies required on this till the coffee is sold to another business. You do not count the emissions from the business on.

Business to the customer: It takes reference from the cultivation process or initial stage of creating the product or in case it is an organization you gather all the activities it makes, depending on the objectives the business has. The inventory, in this case, is made until the consumer uses and disposes of the product, as you see much longer and complicated.

The basic formula to calculate is: Data activity x emission factor

Data activity: Refers to all the things consumed and taken into account during the process to consider in the calculation. (kg fertilizers/year).

Emission factor: This means the amount of CO2 eq/kg fertilizer)

There are many standards or guides you can use to calculate your carbon footprint. Included in the list are:

  • GHG Protocol
  • IPCC (has a whole book in chapters available on the internet)
  • Ecoinvent provides an emission factors database.

Carbon footprint is an extense an interesting theme, in case you are interested you can learn more on the links below:

  • Cool Farm Tool an online calculator for carbon footprint on products score on biodiversity and water in the farm. LINK: https://coolfarmtool.org/coolfarmtool/
  • IPCC has a lot of information on the theme of how this is working out and other themes related to the carbon footprint. https://www.ipcc.ch/

What Is The Science of Smog? – By, Kim Preshoff

On July 26, 1943, Los Angeles was blanketed by a thick gas that stung people’s eyes and blocked out the Sun. Panicked residents believed their city had been attacked using chemical warfare. But the cloud wasn’t an act of war. It was smog. So what is this thick gray haze actually made of? And why does it affect some cities and not others? Kim Preshoff details the science behind smog.

“Smog is a type of air pollutant. The word “smog” was coined in the early 20th century as a portmanteau of the words smoke and fog to refer to smoky fog, its opacity, and odor. The word was then intended to refer to what was sometimes known as pea soup fog, a familiar and serious problem in London from the 19th century to the mid 20th century. This kind of visible air pollution is composed of nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, ozone, smoke or particulates among others (less visible pollutants include carbon monoxide, CFCs, and radioactive sources). Human-made smog is derived from coal emissions, vehicular emissions, industrial emissions, forest and agricultural fires and photochemical reactions of these emissions.

Modern smog, as found for example in Los Angeles, is a type of air pollution derived from vehicular emission from internal combustion engines and industrial fumes that react in the atmosphere with sunlight to form secondary pollutants that also combine with the primary emissions to form photochemical smog. In certain other cities, such as Delhi, smog severity is often aggravated by stubble burning in neighboring agricultural areas. The atmospheric pollution levels of Los Angeles, Beijing, Delhi, Mexico City, Tehran and other cities are increased by inversion that traps pollution close to the ground. It is usually highly toxic to humans and can cause severe sickness, shortened life or death.”

Health effects

Highland Park Optimist Club wearing smog-gas masks at banquet, Los Angeles, circa 1954 Smog is a serious problem in many cities and continues to harm human health.Ground-level ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide are especially harmful to senior citizens, children, and people with heart and lung conditions such as emphysema, bronchitis, and asthma. It can inflame breathing passages, decrease the lungs’ working capacity, cause shortness of breath, pain when inhaling deeply, wheezing, and coughing. It can cause eye and nose irritation and it dries out the protective membranes of the nose and throat and interferes with the body’s ability to fight infection, increasing susceptibility to illness. Hospital admissions and respiratory deaths often increase during periods when ozone levels are high. There is a lack of knowledge on the long-term effects of air pollution exposure and the origin of asthma. An experiment was carried out using intense air pollution similar to that of the 1952 Great Smog of London. The results of this experiment concluded that there is a link between early-life pollution exposure that leads to the development of asthma, Proposing the ongoing effect of the Great Smog.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smog


What;s is The Difference Between Climate and Weather?

Climate is considered the general weather patterns for a region, meanwhile, weather means the condition of the air or atmosphere in different parts of the planet. Sabrina in an easy and fun way explains what happens with climate change. She tells us in simple words how animals are affected by the different environments around the world from the dry deserts of Africa to the humid wetlands. Cactus and many living creatures have their own complex structures to adapt to this rough environments. Watch the video and learn about this interesting lady.

What is The Schumann Resonance?

Planet Earth is full of life in every place we search for it. As many of you may not know Earth has a heartbeat, yes a heartbeat ladies and gentleman created by the electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere. This heartbeat is known as Schumann Resonance.

Earth has a heartbeat
The planet Earth pulses with a special kind of resonant wave. The beat is a quasi-standing electromagnetic wave that beats at around 8 cycles per second. When lightning strikes the earth around 4 million times a day, it creates electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere. These waves are caught between the ground and the upper atmosphere, sixty miles up. Most of them just dissipate but others with the right wavelength and frequency keep going and get bigger and bigger. They are standing waves that pulse, creating the amazing illusion of a heartbeat, known as the Schumann Resonance. Scientist thought it was always confined to the planet Earth, trapped under the ionosphere but in 2011 NASA scientists detected the waves 500 miles up in space. There is also an amazing Superdeep Hole in Germany drilled by the German Continental Deep Drilling Program, one of the most amazing geoscientific projects ever. The project’s goal was to grant scientists the opportunity to study the planet earth’s crust, the effects of stress on layers of rock and observe any abnormalities along the way. A Dutch artist wanted to know what the planet sounded like, so arranged to have a geophone lowered into the hole to record ultrasonic waves. The sound eerily resembles a heartbeat.

Largest living thing
Forget blue whales and giant redwood trees. The largest living thing on planet Earth is a humungous, amazing fungus. Scientists had never really paid much attention until recently when they realized how large they could get. Known as honey fungus, the large clumps of yellowish brownish mushrooms that appear above the ground are the fruits, so to speak, of much larger organisms. Mycelia are amazing underground networks of tubular filaments that spread out and if they come into contact with another genetically identical mycelia, they can fuse together to form one individual. The honey fungus tunnels underground causing massive tree die-offs and destroying gardens. It also tastes amazing in spaghetti sauce! The team that investigated a wide spread tree die off in Oregon discovered one organism that covered an area of 3.7 sq. miles and was somewhere between 1,900 and 8,650 years old! Not really specific but even 1900 years old is impressive!

Humans are not the only ones responsible for wide-scale extinctions
The Great Oxygenation Event, was the appearance of dioxygen (02)in Earth’s atmosphere. The actual causes are still under debate but it has something to do with oceanic cyanobacteria which became the first microbes to produce oxygen by photosynthesis about 2.3 billion years ago, about 200 million years before the GOE. This extra oxygen they started creating (after a confusing chemical process that we don’t have time to get into) started building up in the atmosphere which set the original atmosphere off balance. Earth’s skies used to be orange full of hydrocarbon particles and iron supporting anaerobic life. All of this oxygen was toxic to these organisms and wiped out most of the anaerobic inhabitants. Cyanobacteria is, therefore, responsible for one of the most significant extinction events in history. Within 200 million years, life before then was wiped out, transforming the orange skies into blue and laid the foundation for aerobic organisms and life the way it exists today.

Creeping Magnetic Pole
Earth’s the North Pole is moving as the ice melts and Earth’s distribution of mass changes. So you can still travel north to go the North pole but will also have to head eastward. Earth rotates on an invisible axis and the places where the axis intersects with the planet’s surface are the north and south poles. Due to the Earth’s wobble, these spots drift around in cycles. Scientists pinpoint the geographic north and south poles by taking long term averages of the rotational positions. Over the past 100 years, the poles have wandered about a few centimeters a year and would shift back and forth. Since 2000, it’s been moving about 10 centimeters a year. If ice disappears from one part of the spinning Earth and resettles elsewhere as water, the planet shifts on its axis toward the place where it lost mass. Scientists are still trying to determine what repercussions this may have regarding climate change and how to apply this to our GPS and satellite systems.

The driest place on Earth…….

‘An Inconvenient Sequel’ kicks off climate-focused Sundance

‘An Inconvenient Sequel’ kicks off climate-focused Sundance. PARK CITY, Utah (AP) – Ten years after the watershed environmental documentary “An Inconvenient Truth” debuted, climate change is as dire as ever and yet the solutions are right in front of us, say directors Bonni Cohen and Jon Shenk, whose film “An Inconvenient Sequel” kicks off the Sundance Film Festival on Thursday.