What are Probiotics?

Probiotics are defined as microorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed. The term probiotic is currently used to name ingested microorganisms associated with benefits for humans and animals. The term came into more common use after 1980. The introduction of the concept (but not the term) is generally attributed to Nobel laureate Élie Metchnikoff, who postulated that yogurt-consuming Bulgarian peasants lived longer lives because of this custom. He suggested in 1907 that “the dependence of the intestinal microbes on the food makes it possible to adopt measures to modify the flora in our bodies and to replace the harmful microbes by useful microbes”. A significant expansion of the potential market for probiotics has led to higher requirements for scientific substantiation of putative benefits conferred by the microorganisms.

Although there are numerous claimed benefits of using commercial probiotics, such as reducing gastrointestinal discomfort, improving immune health, relieving constipation, or avoiding the common cold, such claims are not backed by scientific evidence and are prevented as deceptive advertisements in the United States by the Federal Trade Commission.

Probiotics are considered to be generally safe, but they may cause bacteria-host interactions and unwanted side effects in rare cases.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Probiotic

What are Microbiomes?

“A microbiota is an “ecological community of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms” found in and on all multicellular organisms studied to date from plants to animals. A microbiota includes bacteria, archaea, protists, fungi, and viruses. Microbiota has been found to be crucial for immunologic, hormonal and metabolic homeostasis of their host. The synonymous term microbiome describes either the collective genomes of the microorganisms that reside in an environmental niche or the microorganisms themselves. The microbiome and host emerged during evolution as a synergistic unit from epigenetics and genetic characteristics, sometimes collectively referred to as a holobiont.

All plants and animals, from protists to humans, live in close association with microbial organisms (see for example the human microbiome). Up until relatively recently, however, biologists have defined the interactions of plants and animals with the microbial world mostly in the context of disease states and of a relatively small number of symbiotic case studies. Organisms do not live in isolation but have evolved in the context of complex communities. A number of advances have driven a change in the perception of microbiomes, including:

  • The ability to perform genomic and gene expression analyses of single cells and even of entire microbial communities in the new disciplines of metagenomics and metatranscriptomics.
  • massive databases making this information accessible to researchers across multiple disciplines.
  • methods of mathematical analysis that help researchers to make sense of complex data sets.

Increasingly, biologists have come to appreciate that microbes make up an important part of an organism’s phenotype, far beyond the occasional symbiotic case study.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microbiota

 

What is staphylococcal enteritis?

Staphylococcal enteritis is an inflammation that is usually caused by eating or drinking substances contaminated with staph enterotoxin. The toxin, not the bacterium, settles in the small intestine and cause inflammation and swelling. This in turn can cause abdominal pain, cramping, dehydration, diarrhea, and fever.

Symptoms
Common symptoms of Staphylococcus aureus food poisoning include a rapid onset which is usually 1–6 hours, nausea, explosive vomiting for up to 24 hours, abdominal cramps/pain, headache, weakness, diarrhea and usually a subnormal body temperature. Symptoms usually start one to six hours after eating and last less than 12 hours. The duration of some cases may take two or more days to fully resolve.

What Animals Have SuperPowers?

Read of these amazing animal superpowers! You won’t believe what these animals are capable of! Hairy frogs that break their own bones to grow hair.

Hairy Frog
This frog breaks its own bones to grow claws. Also known as the “Horror Frog” or the “Wolverine Frog,” (with good reason), it is located in central Africa. Its name comes from the hair that grows on its sides. It’s actually not really hair but thin skin-like structures that protrude from its body that looks like hair.
But what makes this frog so amazing isn’t its hair. It’s its claws. Its claws are made of bone that it can project through its skin by breaking its toe bones. When the frogs feels threatened or under attack the Frog will push these broken bones out of its feet to produce claws.
As the bone pushes outward, a bone nodule closer to the outside of the foot adds a sharp point to the frogs’ bones making them look and act just like claws. And unlike all other animals with claws, the “Wolverine Frog’s” claws are not covered in a protective coating of keratin. These frogs are attacking with their actual bones. A frog with similar superpowers was also discovered recently in Japan. Known as the Otton Frog, it also conceals a retractable spike for fighting.
Scientists are not certain if the bones ever retract after they have broken through the skin but considering the “Wolverine” frog’s amazing ability, it’s likely that over time the bones recess back into the foot, until they are needed again.

Other Frog crazy behaviors:

The Mantis Shrimp
It might be tiny, but this little shrimp packs a massive punch. Even though they are only 4 inches long, they are one of the strongest animals in the world. The Mantis shrimp have clubs they use to punch and destroy their prey.

The shrimp has developed a complex muscular structure that actually winds up the shrimp’s punching arm like a spring. When the shrimp are ready to attack, it releases the spring-loaded club with the force of a shot. The punch accelerates over 50 mph with a force of over 330 pounds. That’s up to 2500 times the shrimp’s own weight. Scientists have to keep these shrimp in thick plastic tanks because their punch can easily smash the glass.
If a person could hit that hard, they could break steel. Besides the actual clubs, the force and speed the shrimp uses to attack create bubbles that are so strong that they act like a shockwave, stunning the prey first then knocking it down. In essence, a Mantis shrimp punch acts and feels like multiple hits, even though it’s just one stroke.
In order to punch that hard without breaking their clubs, mantis shrimp have a special shock absorbent core called a Bou ligand structure. This keeps small cracks from breaking completely and researchers are trying to imitate this structure to design thin, light materials.

The Immortal Jellyfish
Known as the Benjamin Button of the sea, these tiny jellyfish transform from an adult back into a baby and they can do it over and over again. They are barely visible to the human eye, with an adult jelly reaching an average of 4.5mm, about the size of your pinky nail (0.18 inches). What makes this animal so amazing, is the fact that it can live forever.
They can live and die per usual but if they sense some kind of crisis like starvation or physical injury, the immortal jellyfish can transform all of its existing cells into a younger state.
The jellyfish turns itself into a blob, then a polyp colony which is the first stage of jellyfish life. This colony can spawn hundreds of genetically identical jellyfish.
Because of their ability to change their cellular structure, scientists have been studying the tiny jellyfish in hopes of helping people who suffer from cellular disease. This continual cycle of regeneration or self-cloning is what makes the jellyfish, in essence, the only known animal known to live forever.

Relly nature is just amazing