What is Suicide?

” Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one’s own death. Risk factors include mental disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorders, and substance abuse, including alcoholism and use of benzodiazepines. Other suicides are impulsive acts due to stress such as from financial difficulties, troubles with relationships, or from bullying. Those who have previously attempted suicide are at higher risk for future attempts. Suicide prevention efforts include limiting access to methods of suicide, such as firearms, drugs, and poisons, treating mental disorders and substance misuse, proper media reporting of suicide, and improving economic conditions. Although crisis hotlines are common, there is little evidence for their effectiveness.

The most commonly used method of suicide varies between countries and is partly related to the availability of effective means. Common methods include hanging, pesticide poisoning, and firearms. Suicide resulted in 828,000 deaths globally in 2015 (up from 712,000 deaths in 1990). This makes it the 10th leading cause of death worldwide.

Approximately 0.5% to 1.4% of people die by suicide, about 12 per 100,000 persons per year. Three-quarters of suicides globally occur in the developing world. Rates of completed suicides are generally higher in men than in women, ranging from 1.5 times as much in the developing world to 3.5 times in the developed world. Suicide is generally most common among those over the age of 70; however, in certain countries, those aged between 15 and 30 are at highest risk. There are an estimated 10 to 20 million non-fatal attempted suicides every year. Non-fatal suicide attempts may lead to injury and long-term disabilities. In the Western world, attempts are more common in young people and females.

Views on suicide have been influenced by broad existential themes such as religion, honor, and the meaning of life. The Abrahamic religions traditionally consider suicide an offense towards God due to the belief in the sanctity of life. During the samurai era in Japan, a form of suicide known as seppuku (harakiri) was respected as a means of making up for failure or as a form of protest. Sati, a practice outlawed by the British Raj, expected the Indian widow to kill herself on her husband’s funeral fire, either willingly or under pressure from the family and society. Suicide and attempted suicide, while previously illegal, are no longer so in most Western countries. It remains a criminal offense in many countries. In the 20th and 21st centuries, suicide has been used on rare occasions as a form of protest, and kamikaze and suicide bombings have been used as a military or terrorist tactic.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suicide

Shraddha Shankar tells in her own words the experience she´s  had in her attempts of suicide on her life. Watch this interesting video of this brave lady, TED talk.

What is Depression?

“Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations. It is often accompanied by low self-esteem, loss of interest in normally enjoyable activities, low energy, and pain without a clear cause. People may also occasionally have false beliefs or see or hear things that others cannot. Some people have periods of depression separated by years in which they are normal while others nearly always have symptoms present.  Major depressive disorder can negatively affect a person’s personal, work, or school life, as well as sleeping, eating habits, and general health. Between 2–7% of adults with major depression die by suicide, and up to 60% of people who die by suicide had depression or another mood disorder.

The cause is believed to be a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. Risk factors include a family history of the condition, major life changes, certain medications, chronic health problems, and substance abuse. About 40% of the risk appears to be related to genetics. The diagnosis of the major depressive disorder is based on the person’s reported experiences and a mental status examination. There is no laboratory test for major depression. Testing, however, may be done to rule out physical conditions that can cause similar symptoms. Major depression should be differentiated from sadness, which is a normal part of life and is less severe. The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening for depression among those over the age 12, while a prior Cochrane review found that the routine use of screening questionnaires have little effect on detection or treatment.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Major_depressive_disorder

Andrew Solomon tells his experience on living with depressive disorder and the things that he went through. Watch his interesting experience and what he recommends.

What is Obsessive–compulsive disorder? By Samantha Pena

“Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called “rituals”), or have certain thoughts repeatedly. People are unable to control either the thoughts or the activities for more than a short period of time. Common activities include hand washing, counting of things, and checking to see if a door is locked. Some may have difficulty throwing things out. These activities occur to such a degree that the person’s daily life is negatively affected. Often they take up more than an hour a day. Most adults realize that the behaviors do not make sense. The condition is associated with tics, anxiety disorder, and an increased risk of suicide.

The cause is unknown. There appear to be some genetic components with both identical twins more often affected than both non-identical twins.[2] Risk factors include a history of child abuse or another stress-inducing event.  Some cases have been documented to occur following infections. The diagnosis is based on the symptoms and requires ruling out other drug-related or medical causes. Rating scales such as the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale can be used to assess the severity. Other disorders with similar symptoms include anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, eating disorders, tic disorders, and obsessive–compulsivehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obsessive%E2%80%93compulsive_disorder personality disorder. ”

Samantha Pena tells her experience with an Obsessive-compulsive disorder and the many things that she has to go through in order to live a balanced life.

What is Schizophrenia?

” Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand what is real. Common symptoms include false beliefs, unclear or confused thinking, hearing voices that others do not hear, reduced social engagement and emotional expression, and a lack of motivation. People with schizophrenia often have additional mental health problems such as anxiety disorders, major depressive illness, or substance-use disorders. Symptoms typically come on gradually, begin in young adulthood, and last a long time.

The causes of schizophrenia are primarily genetic though some environmental factors are also involved. Possible environmental factors include being raised in a city, cannabis use during adolescence, certain infections, parental age, and poor nutrition during pregnancy. Genetic factors include a variety of common and rare genetic variants. Diagnosis is based on observed behavior, the person’s reported experiences, and reports of others familiar with the person. During diagnosis, a person’s culture must also be taken into account. As of 2013, there is no objective test.  Schizophrenia does not imply a “split personality” or “multiple personality disorder” – conditions with which it is often confused in public perception.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schizophrenia

Cecilia McGough speaks her life experience in simple and interesting words of how she has gone over this mental disorder. Watch this interesting speech.

What Is The Difference Between Delirium and Dementia?

Delirium is named to that slight change in mental state in hours or days. Delirium is different from dementia, dementia refers to a gradual change in mental state that can occur in years. Both affect attention, consciousness, memory, and cognition.

Patients with delirium when having a conversation may distract easily, do not understand anything you are talking about and seem confused. In some cases, they might tend to have hallucinations or even fear and a mix of emotions. Dementia symptoms are mostly alike the difference is that in delirium this might fluctuate during the day or stages with no emotions at all.

Doctors have trouble detecting whether the patient has delirium or dementia and some patients may even have both at the same time. Watch the video and learn more interesting facts about this two mental disorders.

The overall Effects of Alcohol

Short-term effects

In low doses, alcohol produces:

  • A relaxing effect
  • Reduced tension
  • Lowered inhibitions
  • Poor concentration
  • Slow reflexes
  • Slow reaction time
  • Reduced coordination
  • Slower brain activity
  • Sensations and perceptions that are less clear
  • In medium doses, alcohol produces:
  • Slurred speech
  • Sleepiness
  • Altered emotions
  • Poor vision
  • Sleepiness and disruption of sleeping patterns
  • Increased urine production
  • More blood flow to skin surface
  • Lower core body temperature

In high doses, alcohol produces:

  • Vomiting
  • Uncontrolled urination
  • Uncontrolled defecation
  • Breathing difficulties
  • Passing out
  • Alcohol poisoning
  • Coma
  • Possible death

Long-term effects of alcohol

  • Disrupts normal brain development;
  • Liver damage and cirrhosis of the liver;
  • Brain cells die, decreasing brain mass;
  • Stomach and intestinal ulcers and destroyed organs;
  • Blood pressure increases, causing heart disease, heart attack, or stroke;
  • Male sperm production decreases;
  • Lower levels of iron and vitamin B, causing anemia;
  • Alcoholism;
  • Death;
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome in unborn children.
    -https://www2.courtinfo.ca.gov/stopteendui/teens/resources/substances/alcohol/short-and-long-term-effects.cfm

Alcoholism

Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.[12] The disorder was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence.[1][13] In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions is present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use -https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcoholism