What’s wrong with fast food? A clever summary.

1. A sign advertising inclusion of highly processed meat and even sugar in a sandwich.

Many fast foods are rich in calories as they include considerable amounts of mayonnaise, cheese, salt, fried meat, and oil, thus containing high-fat content (Schlosser). Excessive consumption of fatty ingredients such as these results in an unbalanced diet. Proteins and vitamins are generally recommended for daily consumption rather than large quantities of carbohydrates or fat. Due to their fat content, fast foods are implicated in poor health and various serious health issues such as obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, there is strong empirical evidence showing that fast foods are also detrimental to appetite, respiratory system function, and central nervous system function (Schlosser).

2. McDonald’s has received criticism for serving food high in saturated fat and calories.

According to the Massachusetts Medical Society Committee on Nutrition, fast foods are commonly high in fat content, and studies have found associations between fast food intake and increased body mass index (BMI) and weight gain. In particular many fast foods are high in saturated fats which are widely held to be a risk factor in heart disease. In 2010, heart disease was the number 1 ranking cause of death. *(…)

3. Food poisoning risk

This section needs attention from an expert in Health. The specific problem is: The info about manure needs verification. WikiProject Health may be able to help recruit an expert. (December 2013)
Besides the risks posed by trans fats, high caloric intake, and low fiber intake, another cited health risk is food poisoning. In his book Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal, Eric Schlosser argues that meatpacking factories concentrate livestock into feedlots and herd them through processing assembly lines operated by employees of various levels of expertise, some of which may be poorly trained, increasing the risk of large-scale food poisoning.

Manure on occasion gets mixed with meat, possibly contaminating it with salmonella and pathogenic E. coli. Usually spread through undercooked hamburgers, raw vegetables, and contaminated water, it is difficult to treat. Although supportive treatment can substantially aid inflicted individuals, since endotoxin is released from gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli upon death, antibiotic use to treat E. coli infections is not recommended.[14] About 4% of people infected with E. coli 0157:H7 develop hemolytic uremic syndrome, and about 5% of children who develop the syndrome die. The rate of developing HUS is 3 in 100,000 or 0.003%. E. coli 0157:H7 has become the leading cause of renal failure among American children.

These numbers include rates from all sources of poisoning, including lettuce; radish sprouts; alfalfa sprouts; unpasteurized apple juice/cider; cold cooked or undercooked meat; and unpasteurized animal milk. Additional environmental sources include fecal-contaminated lakes, nonchlorinated municipal water supply, petting farm animals and unhygienic person-to-person contact.[15] An average of sources leads to the number of 0.00000214% for undercooked beef.

4. Food-contact paper packaging

Fast food often comes in wrappers coated with polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) to prevent grease from leaking through them. These compounds are able to migrate from the wrappers into the packaged food.[16] Upon ingestion, PAPs are subsequently biotransformed into perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), compounds which have long attracted attention due to their detrimental health effects in rodents and their unusually long half-lives in humans. While epidemiological evidence has not demonstrated causal links between PFCAs and these health problems in humans, the compounds are consistently correlated with high levels of cholesterol and uric acid, and PAPs, as found on fast food packaging, may be a significant source of PFCA contamination in humans.

On average, nearly one-third of U.S. children aged 4 to 19 eat fast food on a daily basis. Over the course of a year this is likely to result in a child gaining 6 extra pounds every year. *(…) any given day 30.3% of the total sample had eaten fast food. Fast-food consumption was prevalent in both males and females, in all racial/ethnic groups, and in all regions of the country.

Contrary evidence has been documented that questions the correlation of a fast food diet and obesity. A 2014 People Magazine article recounts the experience of John Cisna, a science teacher at Colo-NESCO High School, who ate a fast food diet for 90 days. At the end of 90 days he had lost 37 pounds and his cholesterol level went from 249 to 170. Cisna kept to a strict 2,000 calorie limit a day and walked 45 minutes a day. Harley Pasternak, a celebrity trainer and nutrition expert, supports Cisna’s experiment by saying, “While I don’t think it’s a great idea to eat too much fast food…I do think he is right. Fast food, while far from healthy, doesn’t make people gain weight. Eating too much fast food too often is what can make you gain weight—the same way eating too much of anything can pack on the pounds.” -https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criticism_of_fast_foodFast F

What is Suicide?

” Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one’s own death. Risk factors include mental disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorders, and substance abuse, including alcoholism and use of benzodiazepines. Other suicides are impulsive acts due to stress such as from financial difficulties, troubles with relationships, or from bullying. Those who have previously attempted suicide are at higher risk for future attempts. Suicide prevention efforts include limiting access to methods of suicide, such as firearms, drugs, and poisons, treating mental disorders and substance misuse, proper media reporting of suicide, and improving economic conditions. Although crisis hotlines are common, there is little evidence for their effectiveness.

The most commonly used method of suicide varies between countries and is partly related to the availability of effective means. Common methods include hanging, pesticide poisoning, and firearms. Suicide resulted in 828,000 deaths globally in 2015 (up from 712,000 deaths in 1990). This makes it the 10th leading cause of death worldwide.

Approximately 0.5% to 1.4% of people die by suicide, about 12 per 100,000 persons per year. Three-quarters of suicides globally occur in the developing world. Rates of completed suicides are generally higher in men than in women, ranging from 1.5 times as much in the developing world to 3.5 times in the developed world. Suicide is generally most common among those over the age of 70; however, in certain countries, those aged between 15 and 30 are at highest risk. There are an estimated 10 to 20 million non-fatal attempted suicides every year. Non-fatal suicide attempts may lead to injury and long-term disabilities. In the Western world, attempts are more common in young people and females.

Views on suicide have been influenced by broad existential themes such as religion, honor, and the meaning of life. The Abrahamic religions traditionally consider suicide an offense towards God due to the belief in the sanctity of life. During the samurai era in Japan, a form of suicide known as seppuku (harakiri) was respected as a means of making up for failure or as a form of protest. Sati, a practice outlawed by the British Raj, expected the Indian widow to kill herself on her husband’s funeral fire, either willingly or under pressure from the family and society. Suicide and attempted suicide, while previously illegal, are no longer so in most Western countries. It remains a criminal offense in many countries. In the 20th and 21st centuries, suicide has been used on rare occasions as a form of protest, and kamikaze and suicide bombings have been used as a military or terrorist tactic.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suicide

Shraddha Shankar tells in her own words the experience she´s  had in her attempts of suicide on her life. Watch this interesting video of this brave lady, TED talk.

Why Cancer Is SO Difficult to Cure? by Kyuson Yun

In the first place to understand its difficulty, we need to know exactly what the word cancer means and all the implications it has.

” Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Not all tumors are cancerous; benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body. Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, and a change in bowel movements. While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may have other causes. Over 100 types of cancers affect humans.

Tobacco use is the cause of about 22% of cancer deaths. Another 10% are due to obesity, poor diet, lack of physical activity, and excessive drinking of alcohol. Other factors include certain infections, exposure to ionizing radiation and environmental pollutants. In the developing world, nearly 20% of cancers are due to infections such as hepatitis B, hepatitis Cand human papillomavirus infection. These factors act, at least partly, by changing the genes of a cell. Typically many genetic changes are required before cancer develops. Approximately 5–10% of cancers are due to inherited genetic defects from a person’s parents. Cancer can be detected by certain signs and symptoms or screening tests. It is then typically further investigated by medical imaging and confirmed by biopsy.

Many cancers can be prevented by not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, not drinking too much alcohol, eating plenty of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains, vaccination against certain infectious diseases, not eating too much processed and red meat, and avoiding too much sunlight exposure. Early detection through screening is useful for cervical and colorectal cancer. The benefits of screening in breast cancer are controversial. Cancer is often treated with some combination of radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Pain and symptom management are an important part of care. Palliative care is particularly important in people with advanced disease. The chance of survival depends on the type of cancer and extent of disease at the start of treatment. In children under 15 at diagnosis, the five-year survival rate in the developed world is on average 80%. For cancer in the United States, the average five-year survival rate is 66%”. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cancer

In the words of Kyuson Yun learn about the difficulties involved in the cure of cancer.

How Does Body Language Express who We Are?

Our body language can really tell who we are and can even show things of how we feel, experts say that with the appropriate pose we can show others security or anything we want to transmit. We can boost out a series of feelings when we do not even feel like them.

” Body language is a type of non-verbal communication in which physical behavior, as opposed to words, are used to express or convey information. Such behavior includes facial expressions, body posture, gestures, eye movement, touch and the use of space. Body language exists in both animals and humans, but this article focuses on interpretations of human body language. It is also known as kinesics.

Body language must not be confused with sign language, assign languages are full languages like spoken languages and have their own complex grammar systems, as well as being able to exhibit the fundamental properties that exist in all languages. Body language, on the other hand, does not have a grammar and must be interpreted broadly, instead of having an absolute meaning corresponding with a certain movement, so it is not a language like sign language and is simply termed as a “language” due to popular culture.

In a community, there are agreed-upon interpretations of particular behavior. Interpretations may vary from country to country, or culture to culture. On this note, there is controversy on whether body language is universal. Body language, a subset of nonverbal communication, complements verbal communication in social interaction. In fact, some researchers conclude that nonverbal communication accounts for the majority of information transmitted during interpersonal interactions. It helps to establish the relationship between two people and regulates interaction, but can be ambiguous.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Body_language

How to Relieve Stress?

In moments of being exposed to a situation like a challenge experts say you must put systems in place because under stress, your brain is not going to act like it might. You are under a stress scenario.

” Physiological or biological stress is an organism’s response to a stressor such as an environmental condition. Stress is the body’s method of reacting to a challenge. Stimuli that alter an organism’s environment are responded to by multiple systems in the body. The autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are two major systems that respond to stress. The sympathoadrenal medullary (SAM) axis may activate the fight or flight response through the sympathetic nervous system, which dedicates energy to more relevant bodily systems to acute adaption to stress, while the parasympathetic nervous system returns the body to homeostasis. The second major physiological stress, the HPA axis regulates the release of cortisol, which influences many bodily functions such as metabolic, psychological and immunological functions. The SAM and HPA axes are regulated by a wide variety of brain regions, including the limbic system, prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hypothalamus, and stria terminalis. Through these mechanisms, stress can alter memory functions, reward, immune function, metabolism and susceptibility to diseases. Definitions of stress differ; however, one system proposed by Elliot and Eisdorfer suggests five types of stress. The five types of stress are labeled “acute time-limited stressors”, “brief naturalistic stressors”, “stressful event sequence”, “chronic stressors”, and “distant stressors”. Acute time-limited stressors involve short-term challenges, while, on the other hand, brief naturalistic stressors involve an event that is normal but nevertheless challenging. Stressful event sequences are a stressor that occurs and continues to yield stress into the immediate future. Chronic stressors involve exposure to a long-term stressor and a distant stressor is a stressor that isn’t immediate.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stress_(biology)

What is Asperger´s syndrome?

” Asperger syndrome (AS), also known as Asperger’s, is a developmental disorder characterized by significant difficulties in social interaction and nonverbal communication, along with restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests. As a milder autism spectrum disorder (ASD), it differs from other ASDs by relatively normal language and intelligence. Although not required for diagnosis, physical clumsiness and unusual use of language are common. Signs usually begin before two years old and typically last for a person’s entire life.

The exact cause of Asperger’s is unknown. While it is probably partly inherited, the underlying genetics have not been determined conclusively. Environmental factors are also believed to play a role. Brain imaging has not identified a common underlying problem. The diagnosis of Asperger’s was removed in the 2013 fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), and people with these symptoms are now included within the autism spectrum disorder along with autism and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. It remains within the tenth edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) as of 2015.

There is no single treatment, and the effectiveness of particular interventions is supported by only limited data. Treatment is aimed at improving poor communication skills, obsessive or repetitive routines, and physical clumsiness. Interventions may include social skills training, cognitive behavioral therapy, physical therapy, speech therapy, parent training, and medications for associated problems such as mood or anxiety. Most children improve as they grow up, but social and communication difficulties usually persist. Some researchers and people on the autism spectrum have advocated a shift in attitudes toward the view that autism spectrum disorder is a difference, rather than a disease that must be treated or cured.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asperger_syndrome

What is Crossfit?

” CrossFit is a branded fitness regimen created by Greg Glassman and is a registered trademark of CrossFit, Inc. which was founded by Greg Glassman and Lauren Jenai in 2000. Promoted as both a physical exercise philosophy and also as a competitive fitness sport, CrossFit workouts incorporate elements from high-intensity interval training, Olympic weightlifting, plyometrics, powerlifting, gymnastics, girevoy sport, calisthenics, strongman, and other exercises. It is practiced by members of over 13,000 affiliated gyms, roughly half of which are located in the United States, and by individuals who complete daily workouts (otherwise known as “WODs” or “workouts of the day”).

CrossFit is a strength and conditioning program consisting mainly of a mix of aerobic exercise, calisthenics (body weight exercises), and Olympic weightlifting. CrossFit, Inc. describes its strength and conditioning program as “constantly varied functional movements executed at high intensity across broad time and modal domains,” with the stated goal of improving fitness, which it defines as “work capacity across broad time and modal domains.” Hour-long classes at affiliated gyms, or “boxes”, typically include a warm-up, a skill development segment, the high-intensity “workout of the day” (or WOD), and a period of individual or group stretching. Some gyms also often have a strength focused movement prior to the WOD. Performance on each WOD is often scored and/or ranked to encourage competition and to track individual progress. Some affiliates offer additional classes, such as Olympic weightlifting, which are not centered around a WOD.

The wall walk exercise uses a wall to practice handstands, usually used as skill work to strengthen the shoulder and core in order to improve overhead movements and handstand push-ups.

CrossFit gyms use equipment from multiple disciplines, including barbells, dumbbells, gymnastics rings, pull-up bars, jump ropes, kettlebells, medicine balls, plyo boxes, resistance bands, rowing machines, and various mats. CrossFit is focused on “constantly varied, high-intensity, functional movement,” drawing on categories and exercises such as these: calisthenics, Olympic-style weightlifting, powerlifting, Strongman-type events, plyometrics, body weight exercises, indoor rowing, aerobic exercise, running, and swimming.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CrossFit

What is Tourette´s Syndrome?

” Tourette syndrome (TS or simply Tourette’s) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood,  characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic. These tics characteristically wax and wane, can be suppressed temporarily, and are typically preceded by an unwanted urge or sensation in the affected muscles. Some common tics are eye blinking, coughing, throat clearing, sniffing, and facial movements. Tourette’s does not adversely affect intelligence or life expectancy.

Tourette’s is defined as part of a spectrum of tic disorders, which includes provisional, transient and persistent (chronic) tics. While the exact cause is unknown, it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. There are no specific tests for diagnosing Tourette’s; it is not always correctly identified because most cases are mild and the severity of tics decreases for most children as they pass through adolescence. Extreme Tourette’s in adulthood, though sensationalized in the media, is a rarity; tics are often unnoticed by casual observers.

In most cases, medication for tics is not necessary. Education is an important part of any treatment plan, and explanation and reassurance alone are often sufficient treatment. Many individuals with Tourette’s go undiagnosed or never seek medical care. Among those who are seen in specialty clinics, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are present at higher rates. These co-occurring diagnoses often cause more impairment to the individual than the tics; hence, it is important to correctly identify associated conditions and treat them.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tourette_syndrome

Mother and daughter tell their story living with this strange syndrome. Watch this incredible TED talk and learn from this courageous ladies.

 

What is Parkinson´s Disease?

“Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system. The symptoms generally come on slowly over time. Early in the disease, the most obvious are shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement, and difficulty with walking. Thinking and behavioral problems may also occur. Dementia becomes common in the advanced stages of the disease. Depression and anxiety are also common occurring in more than a third of people with PD. Other symptoms include sensory, sleep, and emotional problems. The main motor symptoms are collectively called “parkinsonism”, or a “parkinsonian syndrome”.

The cause of Parkinson’s disease is generally unknown but believed to involve both genetic and environmental factors. Those with a family member affected are more likely to get the disease themselves. There is also an increased risk in people exposed to certain pesticides and among those who have had prior head injuries, while there is a reduced risk in tobacco smokers and those who drink coffee or tea. The motor symptoms of the disease result from the death of cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain. This results in not enough dopamine in these areas. The reason for this cell death is poorly understood but involves the build-up of proteins into Lewy bodies in the neurons. Diagnosis of typical cases is mainly based on symptoms, with tests such as neuroimaging being used to rule out other diseases.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parkinson%27s_disease

Emma Lawton was diagnosed Parkinson at a pretty young age 29 years old. She has lived through it and in this special occasion, she talks about her life and the happy things she has lived and how she has accepted Parkinson´s disease.

What is Depression?

“Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations. It is often accompanied by low self-esteem, loss of interest in normally enjoyable activities, low energy, and pain without a clear cause. People may also occasionally have false beliefs or see or hear things that others cannot. Some people have periods of depression separated by years in which they are normal while others nearly always have symptoms present.  Major depressive disorder can negatively affect a person’s personal, work, or school life, as well as sleeping, eating habits, and general health. Between 2–7% of adults with major depression die by suicide, and up to 60% of people who die by suicide had depression or another mood disorder.

The cause is believed to be a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. Risk factors include a family history of the condition, major life changes, certain medications, chronic health problems, and substance abuse. About 40% of the risk appears to be related to genetics. The diagnosis of the major depressive disorder is based on the person’s reported experiences and a mental status examination. There is no laboratory test for major depression. Testing, however, may be done to rule out physical conditions that can cause similar symptoms. Major depression should be differentiated from sadness, which is a normal part of life and is less severe. The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends screening for depression among those over the age 12, while a prior Cochrane review found that the routine use of screening questionnaires have little effect on detection or treatment.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Major_depressive_disorder

Andrew Solomon tells his experience on living with depressive disorder and the things that he went through. Watch his interesting experience and what he recommends.

What is Obsessive–compulsive disorder? By Samantha Pena

“Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called “rituals”), or have certain thoughts repeatedly. People are unable to control either the thoughts or the activities for more than a short period of time. Common activities include hand washing, counting of things, and checking to see if a door is locked. Some may have difficulty throwing things out. These activities occur to such a degree that the person’s daily life is negatively affected. Often they take up more than an hour a day. Most adults realize that the behaviors do not make sense. The condition is associated with tics, anxiety disorder, and an increased risk of suicide.

The cause is unknown. There appear to be some genetic components with both identical twins more often affected than both non-identical twins.[2] Risk factors include a history of child abuse or another stress-inducing event.  Some cases have been documented to occur following infections. The diagnosis is based on the symptoms and requires ruling out other drug-related or medical causes. Rating scales such as the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale can be used to assess the severity. Other disorders with similar symptoms include anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, eating disorders, tic disorders, and obsessive–compulsivehttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obsessive%E2%80%93compulsive_disorder personality disorder. ”

Samantha Pena tells her experience with an Obsessive-compulsive disorder and the many things that she has to go through in order to live a balanced life.

What is Anorexia? in the voice of Catherine Pawley

” Anorexia from Ancient Greek is the decreased sensation of appetite. While the term in non-scientific publications is often used interchangeably with anorexia nervosa, many possible causes exist for a decreased appetite, some of which may be harmless, while others indicate a serious clinical condition or pose a significant risk.

For example, anorexia of infection is part of the acute phase response (APR) to infection. The APR can be triggered by lipopolysaccharides and peptidoglycans from bacterial cell walls, bacterial DNA, and double-stranded viral RNA, and viral glycoproteins, which can trigger production of a variety of proinflammatory cytokines. These can have an indirect effect on appetite by a number of means, including peripheral afferents from their sites of production in the body, by enhancing production of leptin from fat stores. Inflammatory cytokines can also signal to the central nervous system more directly by specialized transport mechanisms through the blood-brain barrier, via circumventricular organs(which are outside the barrier), or by triggering production of eicosanoids in the endothelial cells of the brain vasculature. Ultimately the control of appetite by this mechanism is thought to be mediated by the same factors normally controlling appetite, such as neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine, histamine, norepinephrine, corticotropin-releasing factor, neuropeptide Y, and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone).” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anorexia_(symptom)

 

What is Schizophrenia?

” Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand what is real. Common symptoms include false beliefs, unclear or confused thinking, hearing voices that others do not hear, reduced social engagement and emotional expression, and a lack of motivation. People with schizophrenia often have additional mental health problems such as anxiety disorders, major depressive illness, or substance-use disorders. Symptoms typically come on gradually, begin in young adulthood, and last a long time.

The causes of schizophrenia are primarily genetic though some environmental factors are also involved. Possible environmental factors include being raised in a city, cannabis use during adolescence, certain infections, parental age, and poor nutrition during pregnancy. Genetic factors include a variety of common and rare genetic variants. Diagnosis is based on observed behavior, the person’s reported experiences, and reports of others familiar with the person. During diagnosis, a person’s culture must also be taken into account. As of 2013, there is no objective test.  Schizophrenia does not imply a “split personality” or “multiple personality disorder” – conditions with which it is often confused in public perception.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schizophrenia

Cecilia McGough speaks her life experience in simple and interesting words of how she has gone over this mental disorder. Watch this interesting speech.

What is Progeria?

“Progeria is an extremely rare genetic disorder in which symptoms resembling aspects of aging are manifested at a very early age. Progeria is one of the several progeroid syndromes. Those born with progeria typically live to their mid-teens the too early twenties.  It is a genetic condition that occurs as a new mutation and is rarely inherited, as carriers usually do not live to reproduce. Although the term progeria applies strictly speaking to all diseases characterized by premature aging symptoms and is often used as such, it is often applied specifically in reference to Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS).

Progeria was first described in 1886 by Jonathan Hutchinson. It was also described independently in 1897 by Hastings Gilford. The condition was later named Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome. The word progeria comes from the Greek words “pro” (πρό), meaning “before” or “premature”, and “gēras” (γῆρας), meaning “old age”. Scientists are interested in progeria partly because it might reveal clues about the normal process of aging.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progeria

Sam Berns 17 years old on his TED talks establishes the basic things he does in his life to live it happy. We can accomplish all our dreams come true nothing can stop us. “Around the world only 350 kids suffer from progeria, just to give you an idea of how rare this disease is.”

What Causes Stomach Ulcers?

“Stomach ulcers are is a break in the lining of the stomach, the first part of the small intestine, or occasionally the lower esophagus. An ulcer in the stomach is known as a gastric ulcer while that in the first part of the intestines is known as a duodenal ulcer. The most common symptoms of a duodenal ulcer are waking at night with upper abdominal pain or upper abdominal pain that improves with eating. With a gastric ulcer, the pain may worsen with eating. The pain is often described as a burning or dull ache. Other symptoms include belching, vomiting, weight loss, or poor appetite. About a third of older people have no symptoms. Complications may include bleeding, perforation, and blockage of the stomach. Bleeding occurs in as many as 15% of people.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peptic_ulcer_disease

Causes:

  • H. pylori

  • NSAIDs

  • Stress

  • Diet

  • Other: Including smoking that increases the risk of an ulcer formation. 

 

What is Schizoaffective disorder?

Schizoaffective disorder is a combination of schizophrenia combined with mood disorder symptoms including depression. The symptoms vary from person to person so it is very difficult to characterize it. People affected by this disorder can improve quality life having daily treatment.

“Schizoaffective disorder (SZA, SZD or SAD) is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal thought processes and deregulated emotions. The diagnosis is made when the person has features of both schizophrenia and a mood disorder—either bipolar disorder or depression—but does not strictly meet diagnostic criteria for either alone. The bipolar type is distinguished by symptoms of mania, hypomania, or mixed episode; the depressive type by symptoms of depression only. Common Symptoms of the disorder include hallucinations, paranoid delusions, and disorganized speech and thinking. The onset of symptoms usually begins in young adulthood, currently with an uncertain lifetime prevalence because the disorder was redefined, but DSM-IV prevalence estimates were less than 1 percent of the population, in the range of 0.5 to 0.8 percent. Diagnosis is based on observed behavior and the person’s reported experiences.

Genetics, neurobiology, early and current environment, behavioral, social, and experiential components appear to be important contributory factors; some recreational and prescription drugs may cause or worsen symptoms. No single isolated organic cause has been found, but extensive evidence exists for abnormalities in the metabolism of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), dopamine, and glutamic acid in people with schizophrenia, psychotic mood disorders, and schizoaffective disorder. People with schizoaffective disorder are likely to have co-occurring conditions, including anxiety disorders and substance use disorder. Social problems such as long-term unemployment, poverty, and homelessness are common. The average life expectancy of people with the disorder is shorter than those without it, due to increased physical health problems from an absence of health-promoting behaviors including a sedentary lifestyle, and a higher suicide rate.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schizoaffective_disorder

Could The Sugar Coating on Cells Mean the Penicillin of Cance?

Sugar is certainly important in humans, at a chemical level, at a biological level, at a psychological level and even at a social level. Now, this fascinating TED talk is giving us some hope on what could mean a new and very effective treatment for cancer. View the video and read on for some fascinating facts about sugar and humans.
Your cells are coated with sugars that store information and speak a secret language. What are they trying to tell us? Your blood type, for one — and, potentially, that you have cancer. Chemical biologist Carolyn Bertozzi researchers how sugars on cancerous cells interact with (and sometimes trick) your immune system. Learn more about how your body detects cancer and how the latest cancer-fighting medicines could help your immune system beat the disease.

“In most parts of the world, sugar is an important part of the human diet, making food more palatable and providing food energy. After cereals and vegetable oils,  the sugar derived from sugarcane and beet provided more kilocalories per capita per day on average than other food groups.[59] According to the FAO, an average of 24 kilograms (53 lb) of sugar, equivalent to over 260 food calories per day, was consumed annually per person of all ages in the world in 1999. Even with rising human populations, sugar consumption is expected to increase to 25.1 kilograms (55 lb) per person per year by 2015.[60]

Data collected in multiple U.S. surveys between 1999 and 2008 show that the intake of added sugars has declined by 24 percent with declines occurring in all age, ethnic and income groups.

The per capita consumption of refined sugar in the United States has varied between 27 and 46 kilograms (60 and 101 lb) in the last 40 years. In 2008, American per capita total consumption of sugar and sweeteners, exclusive of artificial sweeteners, equaled 61.9 kg (136 lb) per year. This consisted of 29.65 kg (65.4 lb) pounds of refined sugar and 31 kg (68.3 lb) pounds of corn-derived sweeteners per person.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sugar

 

What Is The Difference Between Delirium and Dementia?

Delirium is named to that slight change in mental state in hours or days. Delirium is different from dementia, dementia refers to a gradual change in mental state that can occur in years. Both affect attention, consciousness, memory, and cognition.

Patients with delirium when having a conversation may distract easily, do not understand anything you are talking about and seem confused. In some cases, they might tend to have hallucinations or even fear and a mix of emotions. Dementia symptoms are mostly alike the difference is that in delirium this might fluctuate during the day or stages with no emotions at all.

Doctors have trouble detecting whether the patient has delirium or dementia and some patients may even have both at the same time. Watch the video and learn more interesting facts about this two mental disorders.

6 Things You Need to Know About Malaria – Malaria basics

Malaria is one of the most ancient diseases to attack humans acording to historians. Up until the recent century, people had no medicine against malaria, today medicine has developed a special treatment to cure most people with malaria, and also we have developed preventive methods, like to control and spray mosquito populations to the point of annihilation.

  • Transmitted by a mosquito bite.
  • Malaria is primarily a disease of the red blood cells and liver cells.
  • Malaria is associated to tropical mosquitoes.
  • Tropical mosquitoes, not all but some carry plasmodium.. the responsible of malaria.
  • Female mosquitoes are the ones that are contaminated by Plasmodium parasite.
  • Male mosquitoes feed on nectar flowers.

Watch the video and learn how exactly do we get infected with malaria…. who is guilty in this process the mosquitoes or the Plasmodium.

What is traveler’s diarrhea?

This diarrhea is caused by a bad critter called Enterotoxigenic E. coli.

How do you acquire the bacteria?

If you drink water or food contaminated with feces from someone that had the pathogen.

Where does it attack?

It goes directly to the small intestine and will associate with the epithelial cells in which it will liberate two types of toxins to enter the cell and once inside it will make the cell expel its fluids. The symptoms start a few hours after exposure and last a few days.

Symptoms

  • Watery diarrhea
  • Dehydration
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting

There are not many medicines to relief this but to drink a lot of water, since you small intestine cells are releasing them!!!

Be careful always in where the food and water you drink comes from, remember this will affect your quality time and health after all.

Traveler’s diarrhea
Synonyms Traveller’s diarrhoea, tourist diarrhea,[1]traveler’s dysentery[1]
E coli at 10000x, original.jpg
The bacteria E. coli, the most common cause of Traveler’s diarrhea
Specialty Infectious disease Edit this on Wikidata
Symptoms Unformed stool while traveling, fever, abdominal cramps[2][3]
Duration Typically < 5 days[3]
Causes Often bacterial[3]
Prevention Eating only properly prepared food, drinking bottled water, frequent hand washing[4]
Treatment Oral rehydration therapyantibioticsloperamide[3][4]
Frequency ~35% of travelers to the developing world[3]

Traveler’s diarrhea (TD) is a stomach and intestinal infection. TD is defined as the passage of unformed stool (one or more by some definitions, three or more by others) while traveling.[2][3] It may be accompanied by abdominal cramps, nausea, fever, and bloating.[3] Occasionally bloody diarrhea may occur.[5] Most travelers recover within four days with little or no treatment.[3] About 10% of people may have symptoms for a week.[3]

Bacteria are responsible for more than half of cases.[3] The bacteria enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are typically the most common except in Southeast Asia, where Campylobacter is more prominent.[2][3]About 10% to 20% of cases are due to norovirus.[3] Protozoa such as Giardia may cause longer term disease.[3] The risk is greatest in the first two weeks of travel and among young adults.[2] People affected are more often from the developed world.[2]

What is viral gastroenteritis?

Gastroenteritis disease is characterized by the appearance of vomits, nausea, diarrhea and consequently, this will turn into dehydration. All these symptoms come from a stomach virus. Many types of virus can do this effect including actino virus, sapa virus, rota virus, Noro virus and the astro virus. All of this one are capable of causing gastroenteritis.

One important thing is to know when it is a bacterial or viral infection. The signs are if diarrhea is watery then it is virus infection but if it is bloody then it is a bacterial infection. Bacterial infections are accompanied by more fevers than viral infections but symptoms vary from person to person so we can not expect to always have bloody diarrhea in a bacterial infection.

Transmission of gastroenteritis comes either from oral or fecal transmission if someone infected goes to the bathroom and does not wash his or her hands will, of course, have some of the viri on its hands and then goes and touches food or water and you go to drink then the virus is inside your body. The bacteria or virus will go into your digestive system and……… watch the video and find more what happens with this disease.

Gastroenteritis
Synonyms Gastro, stomach bug, stomach virus, stomach flu, gastric flu, gastrointestinitis
Gastroenteritis viruses.jpg
Gastroenteritis viruses: A = rotavirus, B = adenovirus, C = norovirus and D = astrovirus. The virus particles are shown at the same magnification to allow size comparison.
Specialty Infectious disease
Symptoms Diarrheavomitingabdominal pain, fever[1][2]
Complications Dehydration[2][3]
Causes Virusesbacteriaparasitesfungus[2][4]
Diagnostic method Based on symptoms, occasionally stool culture[2]
Differential diagnosis Inflammatory bowel diseasemalabsorption syndromelactose intolerance[5]
Prevention Hand washing, drinking clean water, proper disposal of human wastebreastfeeding[2]
Treatment Oral rehydration solution (combination of water, salts, and sugar), intravenous fluids[2]
Frequency 2.4 billion (2015)[6]
Deaths 1.3 million (2015)[7]

Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract—the stomach and small intestine.[8] Symptoms may include diarrheavomiting and abdominal pain.[1] Fever, lack of energy and dehydration may also occur.[2][3] This typically lasts less than two weeks.[8] It is not related to influenza, though it has been called the “stomach flu”.[9]

Gastroenteritis is usually caused by viruses.[4] However, bacteriaparasites, and fungus can also cause gastroenteritis.[2][4] In children, rotavirus is the most common cause of severe disease.[10] In adults, norovirus and Campylobacter are common causes.[11][12] Eating improperly prepared food, drinking contaminated water or close contact with a person who is infected can spread the disease.[2] Treatment is generally the same with or without a definitive diagnosis, so testing to confirm is usually not needed.[2]

Prevention includes hand washing with soap, drinking clean water, proper disposal of human waste and breastfeeding babies instead of using formula.[2] The rotavirus vaccine is recommended as a prevention for children.[2][10] Treatment involves getting enough fluids.[2] For mild or moderate cases, this can typically be achieved by drinking oral rehydration solution (a combination of water, salts and sugar).[2] In those who are breastfed, continued breastfeeding is recommended.[2] For more severe cases, intravenous fluids may be needed.[2] Fluids may also be given by a nasogastric tube.[13] Zinc supplementation is recommended in children.[2] Antibiotics are generally not needed.[14] However, antibiotics are recommended for young children with a fever and bloody diarrhea.[1]

In 2015, there were two billion cases of gastroenteritis, resulting in 1.3 million deaths globally.[6][7] Children and those in the developing world are affected the most.[15] In 2011, there were about 1.7 billion cases, resulting in about 700,000 deaths of children under the age of five.[16] In the developing world, children less than two years of age frequently get six or more infections a year.[17] It is less common in adults, partly due to the development of immunity.[18]

The overall Effects of Alcohol

Short-term effects

In low doses, alcohol produces:

  • A relaxing effect
  • Reduced tension
  • Lowered inhibitions
  • Poor concentration
  • Slow reflexes
  • Slow reaction time
  • Reduced coordination
  • Slower brain activity
  • Sensations and perceptions that are less clear
  • In medium doses, alcohol produces:
  • Slurred speech
  • Sleepiness
  • Altered emotions
  • Poor vision
  • Sleepiness and disruption of sleeping patterns
  • Increased urine production
  • More blood flow to skin surface
  • Lower core body temperature

In high doses, alcohol produces:

  • Vomiting
  • Uncontrolled urination
  • Uncontrolled defecation
  • Breathing difficulties
  • Passing out
  • Alcohol poisoning
  • Coma
  • Possible death

Long-term effects of alcohol

  • Disrupts normal brain development;
  • Liver damage and cirrhosis of the liver;
  • Brain cells die, decreasing brain mass;
  • Stomach and intestinal ulcers and destroyed organs;
  • Blood pressure increases, causing heart disease, heart attack, or stroke;
  • Male sperm production decreases;
  • Lower levels of iron and vitamin B, causing anemia;
  • Alcoholism;
  • Death;
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome in unborn children.
    -https://www2.courtinfo.ca.gov/stopteendui/teens/resources/substances/alcohol/short-and-long-term-effects.cfm

Alcoholism

Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.[12] The disorder was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence.[1][13] In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions is present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use -https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcoholism