Computational Economics? Quick Summary.

Computational economics is a discipline that is related to computer science, economics and management. Computational models are developed to predict and understand economic dynamics.

” Computational economics uses computer-based economic modeling for the solution of analytically and statistically formulated economic problems. A research program, to that end, is agent-based computational economics (ACE), the computational study of economic processes, including whole economies, as dynamic systems of interacting agents. As such, it is an economic adaptation of the complex adaptive systems paradigm. Here the “agent” refers to “computational objects modeled as interacting according to rules,” not real people. Agents can represent social, biological, and/or physical entities. The theoretical assumption of mathematical optimization by agents in equilibrium is replaced by the less restrictive postulate of agents with bounded rationality adapting to market forces, including game-theoretical contexts. Starting from initial conditions determined by the modeler, an ACE model develops forward through time has driven solely by agent interactions. The ultimate scientific objective of the method is “to … test theoretical findings against real-world data in ways that permit empirically supported theories to cumulate over time, with each researcher’s work building appropriately on the work that has gone before.”

Computational solution tools include for example software for carrying out various matrix operations (e.g. matrix inversion) and for solving systems of linear and nonlinear equations. For a repository of public-domain computational solution tools.

The following journals specialize in computational economics: ACM Transactions on Economics and ComputationComputational EconomicsJournal of Applied EconometricsJournal of Economic Dynamics and Control, and the Journal of Economic Interaction and Coordination.”  Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computational_economics

What is Cybersecurity?

” Computer security, also known as cybersecurity or IT security, is the protection of computer systems from the theft and damage to their hardware, software or information, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.

Cybersecurity includes controlling physical access to the hardware, as well as protecting against the harm that may come via network access, data, and code injection.  Also, due to malpractice by operators, whether intentional, accidental, IT security is susceptible to being tricked into deviating from secure procedures through various methods.

The field is of growing importance due to the increasing reliance on computer systems and the Internet,  wireless networks such as Bluetooth and Wi-Fi, and the growth of “smart” devices, including smartphones, televisions and tiny devices as part of the Internet of Things.

A vulnerability is a weakness in design, implementation, operation or internal control. As they are discovered many vulnerabilities are documented in the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVE) database. An exploitable vulnerability is one for which at least one working attack or “exploit” exists. Vulnerabilities are often hunted or exploited with the aid of automated tools. To secure a computer system, it is important to understand the attacks that can be made against it.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_security

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What Are Computer Networks?

A computer network is a group of devices all linked between each other that are able to share information or data. Data is shared using a cable wire or can even be wireless These networks contain a large number of computers and other electronic devices capable of composing a node.

“A computer network or data network is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources. In computer networks, networked computing devices exchange data with each other using a data link. The connections between nodes are established using either cable media or wireless media.

Network computer devices that originate, route and terminate the data are called network nodes. Nodes can include hosts such as personal computers, phones, servers as well as networking hardware. Two such devices can be said to be networked together when one device is able to exchange information with the other device, whether or not they have a direct connection to each other. In most cases, application-specific communications protocols are layered (i.e. carried as payload) over other more general communications protocols. This formidable collection of information technology requires skilled network management to keep it all running reliably.

Computer networks support an enormous number of applications and services such as access to the World Wide Web, digital video, digital audio, shared use of application and storage servers, printers, and fax machines, and use of email and instant messaging-applications as well as many others. Computer networks differ in the transmission medium used to carry their signals, communications protocols to organize network traffic, the network’s size, topology and organizational intent. The best-known computer network is the Internet.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_network

What is The Central Processing Unit (CPU)?

Computers have their brains in an electronic system called Central Processing Unit, this contains all the commands and memory to save what we make into computer. It bases in arithmetic and logical input and outputs. In this article, we will learn and introduce you some details on how CPU work and what does it really do.

“A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions. The computer industry has used the term “central processing unit” at least since the early 1960s.[1] Traditionally, the term “CPU” refers to a processor, more specifically to its processing unit and control unit (CU), distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as main memory and I/O circuitry.

The form, design, and implementation of CPUs have changed over the course of their history, but their fundamental operation remains almost unchanged. Principal components of a CPU include the arithmetic logic unit (ALU) that performs arithmetic and logic operations, processor registers that supply operands to the ALU and store the results of ALU operations, and a control unit that orchestrates the fetching (from memory) and execution of instructions by directing the coordinated operations of the ALU, registers and other components.

Most modern CPUs are microprocessors, meaning they are contained on a single integrated circuit (IC) chip. An IC that contains a CPU may also contain memory, peripheral interfaces, and other components of a computer; such integrated devices are variously called microcontrollers or systems on a chip (SoC). Some computers employ a multi-core processor, which is a single chip containing two or more CPUs called “cores”; in that context, one can speak of such single chips as “sockets”. Array processors or vector processors have multiple processors that operate in parallel, with no unit considered central. There also exists the concept of virtual CPUs which are an abstraction of dynamical aggregated computational resources.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_processing_unit

What is Computer Science?

Computers fill a crucial role in the function of our society, and it’s our hope that over the course of this series you will gain a better understanding of how far computers have taken us and how far they may carry us into the future. Computer science consists studies of the engineering, theory, experimentation of the computer. It studies the diverse applications of its system.

“Computer science is the study of the theory, experimentation, and engineering that form the basis for the design and use of computers. It is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications and the systematic study of the feasibility, structure, expression, and mechanization of the methodical procedures (or algorithms) that underlie the acquisition, representation, processing, storage, communication of, and access to information. An alternate, more succinct definition of computer science is the study of automating algorithmic processes that scale. A computer scientist specializes in the theory of computation and the design of computational systems.

Its fields can be divided into a variety of theoretical and practical disciplines. Some fields, such as computational complexity theory(which explores the fundamental properties of computational and intractable problems), are highly abstract, while fields such as computer graphics emphasize real-world visual applications. Other fields still focus on challenges in implementing computation. For example, programming language theory considers various approaches to the description of computation, while the study of computer programming itself investigates various aspects of the use of programming language and complex systems. Human-computer interaction considers the challenges in making computers and computations useful, usable, and universally accessible to humans.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_science