” Déjà vu from French, literally “already seen”, is the phenomenon of having the feeling that the situation currently being experienced has already been experienced in the past. Déjà vu is a feeling of familiarity, and déjà vécu (the feeling of having “already lived through” something) is a feeling of recollection. Scientific approaches reject the explanation of déjà vu as “precognition” or “prophecy”, but rather explain it as an anomaly of memory, which creates a distinct impression that an experience is “being recalled”. This explanation is supported by the fact that the sense of “recollection” at the time is strong in most cases, but the circumstances of the “previous” experience (when, where, and how the earlier experience occurred) are uncertain or believed to be impossible. Two types of déjà vu are suggested to exist: the pathological type of déjà vu usually associated with epilepsy and the non-pathological which is a characteristic of healthy people and psychological phenomena.
A 2004 review claimed that approximately two-thirds of the population have had déjà vu experiences. Other studies confirm that déjà vu is a common experience in healthy individuals, with between 31% and 96% of individuals reporting it. Déjà vu experiences that are unusually prolonged or frequent, or in association with other symptoms such as hallucinations, may be an indicator of neurological or psychiatric illness.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D%C3%A9j%C3%A0_vu
Delusional disorder is a mental illness in which patients have delusions for different periods of time. Delusions are bizarre and they cannot be diagnosed easily until someone touches there delusional themes. Delusions are varied and patients are classified according to them.
“Delusional disorder is a mental illness in which the patient presents with delusions, but with no accompanying prominent hallucinations, thought disorder, mood disorder, or significant flattening of effect. Delusions are a specific symptom of psychosis. Delusions can be “bizarre” or “non-bizarre” in content; non-bizarre delusions are fixed false beliefs that involve situations that could potentially occur in real life, such as being followed or poisoned. Apart from their delusions, people with the delusional disorder may continue to socialize and function in a normal manner and their behavior does not necessarily generally seem odd. However, the preoccupation with delusional ideas can be disruptive to their overall lives.
For the diagnosis to be made, auditory and visual hallucinations cannot be prominent, though olfactory or tactile hallucinations related to the content of the delusion may be present. The delusions cannot be due to the effects of a drug, medication, or general medical condition, and delusional disorder cannot be diagnosed in an individual previously properly diagnosed with schizophrenia. A person with delusional disorder may be high functioning in daily life. Recent and comprehensive meta-analysis of scientific studies points to an association between a deterioration in aspects of IQin psychotic patients, in particular, perceptual reasoning.
According to German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin, patients with delusional disorder remain coherent, sensible and reasonable. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) defines six subtypes of the disorder characterized as erotomanic (believes that someone is in love with them), grandiose (believes that they are the greatest, strongest, fastest, richest, or most intelligent person ever), jealous (believes that the love partner is cheating on them), persecutory (delusions that the person or someone to whom the person is close is being malevolently treated in some way), somatic (believes that they have a disease or medical condition), and mixed, i.e., having features of more than one subtype. Delusions also occur as symptoms of many other mental disorders, especially the other psychotic disorders.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delusional_disorder
Each year in the United States, players of sports and recreational activities receive between 2.5 and 4 million concussions.
“Concussion, also known as minor head trauma or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is the most common type of traumatic brain injury. It is typically defined as a head injury with a temporary loss of brain function. Symptoms include a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms, which may not be recognized if subtle. A variety of signs accompany concussion including a headache, feeling in a fog, and emotional changeability. In general, the signs can be categorized into physical signs (such as loss of consciousness or amnesia), behavioral changes (such as irritability), cognitive impairment (such as slowed reaction times), and sleep disturbances. Fewer than 10% of sports-related concussions among children are associated with loss of consciousness.
Common causes include sports injuries, bicycle accidents, car accidents, and falls, the latter two being the most frequent causes among adults. In addition to a blow to the head, concussion may be caused by acceleration forces without a direct impact, and on the battlefield, MTBI is a potential consequence of nearby explosions. It is not clear exactly what damage is done and how the symptoms are caused, but stretching of axons and changes in ion channels are involved. Cellular damage has reportedly been found in concussed brains, but it may have been due to artifacts from the studies. It is currently thought that structural and neuropsychiatric factors may both be responsible for the effects of a concussion.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Concussion
Short Term Effects of a Concussion
In addition to the loss of balance or dizziness, concussions may cause:
- A temporary loss of consciousness
- Feeling as if your brain is in a fog
- Delayed response to questions
- Ringing in your ears
- Nausea and vomiting
- Blurred vision
- Sensitivity to light and sound
Head trauma is very common in young children, especially in toddlers who are learning to walk, run and play. Short-term effects may be difficult to recognize in children because youngsters may not be able to describe how they feel. After a child hits his head, watch for nonverbal clues of a concussion, such as:
- Appearing dazed
- Tires out easily
- Irritability, crankiness
- Excessive crying
- Loss of balance
- Unsteady walking
- Changes in eating or sleeping patterns
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