Is Glass a Liquid?

The glass is a very common material in our homes. Little know the origin of this transparent and fragile material. Glass comes from melted sand that is shaped into the diverse ways we see it. Glass is found in construction materials to eating implements.

“Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics. The most familiar, and historically the oldest, types of glass are “silicate glasses” based on the chemical compound silica (silicon dioxide, or quartz), the primary constituent of sand. The term glass, in popular usage, is often used to refer only to this type of material, which is familiar from use as window glass and in glass bottles. Of the many silica-based glasses that exist, ordinary glazing and container glass is formed from a specific type called soda-lime glass, composed of approximately 75% silicon dioxide(SiO2), sodium oxide (Na2O) from sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), calcium oxide, also called lime (CaO), and several minor additives.

Many applications of silicate glasses derive from their optical transparency, giving rise to their primary use as window panes. Glass will transmit, reflect and refract light; these qualities can be enhanced by cutting and polishing to make optical lenses, prisms, fine glassware, and optical fibers for high-speed data transmission by light. Glass can be coloured by adding metallic salts, and can also be painted and printed with vitreous enamels. These qualities have led to the extensive use of glass in the manufacture of art objects and in particular, stained glass windows. Although brittle, silicate glass is extremely durable, and many examples of glass fragments exist from early glass-making cultures. Because glass can be formed or molded into any shape, it has been traditionally used for vessels: bowls, vases, bottles, jars and drinking glasses. In its most solid forms, it has also been used for paperweights, marbles, and beads. When extruded as glass fiber and matted as glass wool in a way to trap air, it becomes a thermally insulating material, and when these glass fibers are embedded into an organic polymer plastic, they are a key structural reinforcement part of the composite material fiberglass. Some objects historically were so commonly made of silicate glass that they are simply called by the name of the material, such as drinking glasses and reading glasses.”

What Is Psychotherapy?

Psychotherapy is also known as talk therapy it is a way to help people with mental illness and emotional difficulties. People can improve a lot with this type of treatment, a number of sessions are held in which different topics are talked about. Not only psychologists are trained to give psychotherapies, psychiatrists are also in the same line.

” Psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change and overcome problems in desired ways. Psychotherapy aims to improve an individual’s well-being and mental health, to resolve or mitigate troublesome behaviors, beliefs, compulsions, thoughts, or emotions, and to improve relationships and social skills. Certain psychotherapies are considered evidence-based for treating some diagnosed mental disorders.

There are over a thousand different psychotherapy techniques, some being minor variations, while others are based on very different conceptions of psychology, ethics (how to live) or techniques. Most involve one-to-one sessions, between client and therapist, but some are conducted with groups,  including families. Psychotherapists may be mental health professionals such as psychiatrists, psychologists, clinical social workers, marriage and family therapists, or professional counselors. Psychotherapists may also come from a variety of other backgrounds, and depending on the jurisdiction may be legally regulated, voluntarily regulated or unregulated (and the term itself may be protected or not).

Psychotherapists may be mental health professionals, professionals from other backgrounds trained in a specific therapy, or in some cases non-professionals. Psychiatrists are first trained as physicians. As such, they may prescribe prescription medication. Specialist psychiatric training begins after medical school in psychiatric residencies. Clinical psychologists have specialist doctoral degrees in psychology with clinical and research components. Clinical social workers, mental health, and intellectual disability nurses may have specialized training and practical experience in psychotherapy. Many of the wide variety of training programs and institutional settings are multi-professional. In most countries, professionals doing specialized psychotherapeutic work also require a program of continuing education after the basic degree.

As sensitive and deeply personal topics are often discussed during psychotherapy, therapists are expected, and usually legally bound, to respect client or patient confidentiality. The critical importance of client confidentiality—and the limited circumstances in which it may need to be broken for the protection of clients or others—is enshrined in the regulatory psychotherapeutic organizations’ codes of ethical practice.”

What is the Magnus Effect?

Magnus effect is a phenomenon that occurs with spinning objects, this pulls air faster which creates a difference in pressure that moves it into a place of lower pressure. The understanding of this effect has helped understand the movement and conditions of other elements, for example, the ones that are sent to space.

“The Magnus effect is an observable phenomenon that is commonly associated with a spinning object that drags air faster around one side, creating a difference in pressure that moves it in the direction of the lower-pressure side. The Magnus effect often occurs when a spinning sphere (or cylinder) curves away from its principal flight path.

This phenomenon is important in the study of the physics of many ball sports. It is also an important factor in the study of the effects of spinning on guided missiles—and has some engineering uses, for instance in the design of rotor ships and Flettner airplanes.

In terms of ball games, topspin is defined as spin about an axis perpendicular to the direction of travel, where the top surface of the ball is moving forward with the spin. Under the Magnus effect, topspin produces a downward swerve of a moving ball, greater than would be produced by gravity alone, and backspin has the opposite effect. Likewise, side-spin causes swerve to either side as seen during some baseball pitches, e.g. slider. The overall behavior is similar to that around an aerofoil (see lift force), but with a circulation generated by mechanical rotation rather than airfoil action.

The Magnus effect is named after Heinrich Gustav Magnus, the German physicist who investigated it. The force on a rotating cylinder is known as Kutta–Joukowski lift,  after Martin Wilhelm Kutta and Nikolai Zhukovsky (or Joukowski), who first analyzed the effect.”

What are Geometric Optics?

Geometric optics describe how light moves in form of rays. When an object is dropped in the water two-dimensional waves are created on the surface. Light is emitted in all directions of the three-dimensional world. The waves produced are spherical and a ray diagram is formed, the same way light travels through mirrors and lenses.

“Geometrical optics, or ray optics, describes light propagation in terms of rays. The ray in geometric optics is an abstraction useful for approximating the paths along which light propagates under certain circumstances.

The simplifying assumptions of geometrical optics include that light rays:

  • propagate in straight-line paths as they travel in a homogeneous medium
  • bend, and in particular circumstances may split in two, at the interface between two dissimilar media
  • follow curved paths in a medium in which the refractive index changes
  • may be absorbed or reflected.

Geometrical optics does not account for certain optical effects such as diffraction and interference. This simplification is useful in practice; it is an excellent approximation when the wavelength is small compared to the size of structures with which the light interacts. The techniques are particularly useful in describing geometrical aspects of imaging, including optical aberrations.”


What is Electromagnetic Induction?

Michael Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction in his honor the law was created. The process consists of placing a conductor in a changing magnetic field which causes the production of a voltage. This process induces the electrical current.

“Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor due to its dynamic interaction with a magnetic field.

Michael Faraday is generally credited with the discovery of induction in 1831, and James Clerk Maxwell mathematically described it as Faraday’s law of induction. Lenz’s law describes the direction of the induced field. Faraday’s law was later generalized to become the Maxwell-Faraday equation, one of the four Maxwell’s equations in James Clerk Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism.

Electromagnetic induction has found many applications in technology, including electrical components such as inductors and transformers, and devices such as electric motors and generators. Electromagnetic induction was first discovered by Michael Faraday, who made his discovery public in 1831. It was discovered independently by Joseph Henry in 1832.

In Faraday’s first experimental demonstration (August 29, 1831), he wrapped two wires around opposite sides of an iron ring or “torus” (an arrangement similar to a modern toroidal transformer). Based on his understanding of electromagnets, he expected that, when current started to flow in one wire, a sort of wave would travel through the ring and cause some electrical effect on the opposite side. He plugged one wire into a galvanometer and watched it as he connected the other wire to a battery. He saw a transient current, which he called a “wave of electricity” when he connected the wire to the battery and another when he disconnected it. This induction was due to the change in magnetic flux that occurred when the battery was connected and disconnected.  Within two months, Faraday found several other manifestations of electromagnetic induction. For example, he saw transient currents when he quickly slid a bar magnet in and out of a coil of wires, and he generated a steady (DC) current by rotating a copper disk near the bar magnet with a sliding electrical lead”