Algebra

You need to really grasp Algebra, this amazing free 48 video course on the matter is superb. Made easy and fun by famed youtube professor “Dave”, if you go through this course, your algebra classes will finally make sense.

Algebra (from Arabic “al-jabr”, literally meaning “reunion of broken parts”[1]) is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theorygeometry and analysis. In its most general form, algebra is the study of mathematical symbols and the rules for manipulating these symbols;[2] it is a unifying thread of almost all of mathematics.[3] It includes everything from elementary equation solving to the study of abstractions such as groupsrings, and fields. The more basic parts of algebra are called elementary algebra; the more abstract parts are called abstract algebra or modern algebra. Elementary algebra is generally considered to be essential for any study of mathematics, science, or engineering, as well as such applications as medicine and economics. Abstract algebra is a major area in advanced mathematics, studied primarily by professional mathematicians.
Elementary algebra differs from arithmetic in the use of abstractions, such as using letters to stand for numbers that are either unknown or allowed to take on many values.[4] For example, in {\displaystyle x+2=5} the letter {\displaystyle x} is unknown, but applying additive inverses can reveal its value: {\displaystyle x=3}. In E = mc2, the letters {\displaystyle E} and {\displaystyle m}are variables, and the letter {\displaystyle c} is a constant, the speed of light in a vacuum. Algebra gives methods for writing formulas and solving equations that are much clearer and easier than the older method of writing everything out in words.
The word algebra is also used in certain specialized ways. A special kind of mathematical object in abstract algebra is called an “algebra”, and the word is used, for example, in the phrases linear algebra and algebraic topology.
A mathematician who does research in algebra is called an algebraist.

Introduction to Mathematics

This is a great playlist from a fantastic teacher, I hope to put more and more here about him. So here it is, introduction to math.

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, “knowledge, study, learning”) includes the study of such topics as quantity,[1] structure,[2] space,[1] and change.[3][4][5] It has no generally accepted definition.[6][7]

Mathematicians seek and use patterns[8][9] to formulate new conjectures; they resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof. When mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from countingcalculationmeasurement, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist. The research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or even centuries of sustained inquiry.

Rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclid‘s Elements. Since the pioneering work of Giuseppe Peano (1858–1932), David Hilbert (1862–1943), and others on axiomatic systems in the late 19th century, it has become customary to view mathematical research as establishing truth by rigorous deduction from appropriately chosen axioms and definitions. Mathematics developed at a relatively slow pace until the Renaissance, when mathematical innovations interacting with new scientific discoveries led to a rapid increase in the rate of mathematical discovery that has continued to the present day.[10]

Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, engineering, medicine, finance, and the social sciencesApplied mathematics has led to entirely new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics and game theory. Mathematicians engage in pure mathematics (mathematics for its own sake) without having any application in mind, but practical applications for what began as pure mathematics are often discovered later.[11][12]

Physicists like math, usually. People who hate math just don’t understand it. But like that weird ethnic food you’re scared of trying, or that odd kid in class that doesn’t say much, if you come to understand something it’s not so scary. In fact, if we can learn enough about math, we will come to love it, because there is so much we can do with it. Watch this series to supplement your math classes, or just to learn enough math that you can become friends. It starts out super easy so don’t be afraid! Okay, let’s go! “

Arithmetic

Addition (often signified by the plus symbol “+”) is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic; the others are subtractionmultiplicationand division. The addition of two whole numbers is the total amount of those values combined. For example, in the adjacent picture, there is a combination of three apples and two apples together, making a total of five apples. This observation is equivalent to the mathematical expression “3 + 2 = 5” i.e., “3 add 2 is equal to 5″.

Besides counting items, addition can also be defined on other types of numbers, such as integersreal numbers and complex numbers. This is part of arithmetic, a branch of mathematics. In algebra, another area of mathematics, addition can be performed on abstract objects such as vectors and matrices.

Addition has several important properties. It is commutative, meaning that order does not matter, and it is associative, meaning that when one adds more than two numbers, the order in which addition is performed does not matter (see Summation). Repeated addition of 1 is the same as counting; addition of 0 does not change a number. Addition also obeys predictable rules concerning related operations such as subtraction and multiplication.

Performing addition is one of the simplest numerical tasks. Addition of very small numbers is accessible to toddlers; the most basic task, 1 + 1, can be performed by infants as young as five months and even some members of other animal species. In primary education, students are taught to add numbers in the decimal system, starting with single digits and progressively tackling more difficult problems. Mechanical aids range from the ancient abacus to the modern computer, where research on the most efficient implementations of addition continues to this day.

Subtraction is an arithmetic operation that represents the operation of removing objects from a collection. The result of a subtraction is called a difference. Subtraction is signified by the minus sign (−). For example, in the adjacent picture, there are 5 − 2 apples—meaning 5 apples with 2 taken away, which is a total of 3 apples. Therefore, the difference of 5 and 2 is 3, that is, 5 − 2 = 3. Subtraction represents removing or decreasing physical and abstract quantities using different kinds of objects including negative numbersfractionsirrational numbersvectors, decimals, functions, and matrices.

Subtraction follows several important patterns. It is anticommutative, meaning that changing the order changes the sign of the answer. It is also not associative, meaning that when one subtracts more than two numbers, the order in which subtraction is performed matters. Because 0 is the additive identity, subtraction of it does not change a number. Subtraction also obeys predictable rules concerning related operations such as addition and multiplication. All of these rules can be proven, starting with the subtraction of integers and generalizing up through the real numbers and beyond. General binary operations that continue these patterns are studied in abstract algebra.

Performing subtraction is one of the simplest numerical tasks. Subtraction of very small numbers is accessible to young children. In primary education, students are taught to subtract numbers in the decimal system, starting with single digits and progressively tackling more difficult problems.

In advanced algebra and in computer algebra, an expression involving subtraction like A − B is generally treated as a shorthand notation for the addition A + (−B). Thus, A − B contains two terms, namely A and −B. This allows an easier use of associativity and commutativity.

What is the emerging eSports industry?

Soon to be a 1 billion dollar business with over 300 million fans spread across the world. But it doesn’t involve a ball, stadiums or grass pitches eSports seem to be the next big thing in business.

eSports stands for Electronic Sports, its also known as professional competitive gaming. Live game-play is watched by millions online.

One major tournament, the 2016 League of Legends World Championship finals, attracted 43 million viewers.

Tournaments can generate dozens of millions of dollars thanks to sponsorships.

The highest earning player, German Kuro Takhasomi, has earned almost $3.5 million to date.

Untold History of Covert Government WWI-IRAQ, DARPA´s Artificial Mammalian Brain, Bin-laden Bob Lassar & Fake Roswell Aliens – A great podcast with Annie Jacobesen and Joe Rogan

From the very little one can gather from a 3 hour conversation, Annie Jacobsen is an awesome Journalist with a crazy “professional” obsession with the dark and untold, while also an almost morbid fascination with truth. Obviously this is not uncommon and this is her books are so tempting.

Perhaps, before we go to the books, you might enjoy Joe Rogan Experience #1299 – Annie Jacobsen , Joe Rogan who has a superb podcast.


Annie Jacobesen BIO

ANNIE JACOBSEN is a former Los Angeles Times journalist, bestselling author, and 2016 Pulitzer Prize finalist in history. Her nonfiction books are AREA 51, OPERATION PAPERCLIP, THE PENTAGON’S BRAIN, and PHENOMENA. She also writes television.

Jacobsen went to Princeton University where she was taught writing by Joyce Carol Oates and Paul Auster, studied Greek, and served as Captain of the Princeton Women’s Varsity Ice Hockey Team. She lives in Los Angeles with her husband Kevin and their two sons.

– IMDb Mini Biography By: Annie Jacobsen

Books

Sea Rise and Global Warming


Sea level rise is already redrawing coastlines around the world. What happens when the coast retreats through a major city? We look at how the world map will change in the year 2100, and what coastal cities can do to defend themselves.

Infographic: Sea Level Rise and Global Warming, Sea level is rising—and at an accelerating rate—especially along the U.S. East Coast and Gulf of Mexico.

Why are the East Coast and Gulf of Mexico hotspots of sea level rise?
Global average sea level has increased 8 inches since 1880. Several locations along the East Coast and Gulf of Mexico have experienced more than 8 inches of local sea level rise in only the past 50 years.

The rate of local sea level rise is affected by global, regional, and local factors.
Along the East Coast and Gulf of Mexico, changes in the path and strength of ocean currents are contributing to faster-than-average sea level rise.
In parts of the East Coast and Gulf regions, land is subsiding, which allows the ocean to penetrate farther inland.

How quickly is land ice melting?
Shrinking land ice — glaciers, ice caps, and ice sheets — contributed about half of the total global sea level rise between 1972 and 2008, but its contribution has been increasing since the early 1990s as the pace of ice loss has accelerated.
Recent studies suggest that land ice loss added nearly half an inch to global sea level from 2003 to 2007, contributing 75 to 80 percent of the total increase during that period.

Why is there such a large range in sea level rise projections?
The long-term rate of global sea level rise will depend on the amount of future heat-trapping emissions and on how quickly land ice responds to rising temperatures.
Scientists have developed a range of scenarios for future sea level rise based on estimates of growth in heat-trapping emissions and the potential responses of oceans and ice. The estimates used for these two variables result in the wide range of potential sea level rise scenarios.

How high and how quickly will sea level rise in the future?
Our past emissions of heat-trapping gases will largely dictate sea level rise through 2050, but our present and future emissions will have great bearing on sea level rise from 2050 to 2100 and beyond.

Even if global warming emissions were to drop to zero by 2016, sea level will continue to rise in the coming decades as oceans and land ice adjust to the changes we have already made to the atmosphere.

The greatest effect on long-term sea level rise will be the rate and magnitude of the loss of ice sheets, primarily in Greenland and West Antarctica, as they respond to rising temperatures caused by heat-trapping emissions in the atmosphere. 


The frozen continent of Antarctica contains the vast majority of all freshwater on Earth. Now that ice is melting at an accelerating rate, in part because of climate change. What does this transformation mean for coastal communities across the globe? William Brangham reports from Antarctica on the troubling trend of ice loss and how glaciers can serve as a climate record from the past

A damning report from the the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has put the world on the path to a ‘climate catastrophe’ as global warming nears 3C. As scientists say global warming must be limited to 1.5 C, we investigate if it’s too late to turn back. Newsnight is the BBC’s flagship news and current affairs TV programme – with analysis, debate, exclusives, and robust interviews.
Infographic: Reduced climate impacts from the Paris Agreement
Image Credit: “Paris” by Pug Girl (Flickr) is licensed under CC BY 2.0 January 1, 2018

Infographic: Western Wildfires and Climate Change
Rising temperatures are increasing wildfire risk throughout the Western U.S.

Panel 1: Wildfires and Wildfire Season
The number of large wildfires — defined as those covering more than 1,000 acres — is increasing throughout the region. Over the past 12 years, every state in the Western U.S. has experienced an increase in the average number of large wildfires per year compared to the annual average from 1980 to 2000.
Wildfire season is generally defined as the time period between the year’s first and last large wildfires. This infographic highlights the length of the wildfire season for the Western U.S. as a region. Local wildfire seasons vary by location, but have almost universally become longer over the past 40 years.
Panel 2: Rising Temperatures and Earlier Snowmelt
Temperatures are increasing much faster in the Western U.S. than for the planet as a whole. Since 1970, average annual temperatures in the Western U.S. have increased by 1.9° F, about twice the pace of the global average warming.
Scientists are able to gauge the onset of spring snowmelt by evaluating streamflow gauges throughout the Western U.S. Depending on location, the onset of spring snowmelt is occurring 1-4 weeks earlier today than it did in the late 1940s.
Panel 3: Future Projections
The projected increase in annual burn area varies depending on the type of ecosystem. Higher temperatures are expected to affect certain ecosystems, such as the Southern Rocky Mountain Steppe-Forest of central Colorado, more than others, such as the semi-desert and desert of southern Arizona and California. Every ecosystem type, however, is projected to experience an increase in average annual burn area.
The range of projected temperature increases in the Western U.S. by mid-century (2040 – 2070) represents a choice of two possible futures — from one in which we drastically reduce heat-trapping emissions (the projected low end of a lower emissions pathway) to a future in which we continue with “business as usual” (the projected high end of a higher emissions pathway).

Source: https://www.ucsusa.org/global-warming/science-and-impacts/impacts/infographic-wildfires-climate-change.html



Climate change is the greatest global threat to coral reef ecosystems, and scientific evidence now clearly indicates that the Earth’s atmosphere and ocean are warming. A changing climate is affecting coral reef ecosystems through sea level rise, changes to the frequency and intensity of tropical storms, and altered ocean circulation patterns. When combined, all of these impacts dramatically alter ecosystem function, as well as the goods and services coral reef ecosystems provide to people around the globe. Our infographic explains the process, from sea-level rise to ocean acidificiation. Source: https://www.noaa.gov/multimedia/infographic/infographic-how-does-climate-change-affect-coral-reefs