Dogs breeds have been selected for many many years. The breeds are produced according to certain characteristics by its functional type. The number of breeds is not exactly determined because continuously new ones are created.
“Dogs have been selectively bred for thousands of years, sometimes by inbreeding dogs from the same ancestral lines, sometimes by mixing dogs from very different lines. The process continues today, resulting in a widening in appearance without speciation, “from the Chihuahua to the Great Dane.”
The following list uses a wide interpretation of “breed.” Breeds are usually categorized by the functional type from which the breed was developed. The basic types are companion dogs, guard dogs, hunting dogs, herding dogs, and working dogs, although there are many other types and subtypes. Breeds listed here may be traditional breeds with long histories as registered breeds, rare breeds with their own registries, or new breeds that may still be under development.
In some cases, a breed’s origin overlaps the boundaries of two or more countries; the dog is normally listed only in the country with which it is most commonly associated; for example, by its designated country according to the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI). Some dogs, such as the Löwchen, have an uncertain origin and are listed under several countries.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_dog_breeds