EthnoEcology

Ethnoecology is the scientific study of how different groups of people living in different locations understand the ecosystems around them, and their relationships with surrounding environments.

It seeks valid, reliable understanding of how we as humans have interacted with the environment and how these intricate relationships have been sustained over time.[1]

The “ethno” (see ethnology) prefix in ethnoecology indicates a localized study of a people, and in conjunction with ecology, signifies people’s understanding and experience of environments around them. Ecology is the study of the interactions between living organisms and their environment; enthnoecology applies a human focused approach to this subject.[2] The development of the field lies in applying indigenous knowledge of botany and placing it in a global context.

What is Anthropology?

Anthropology science studies all themes related to human beings including past and present elements. Since it is so vast it has divided into various branches to specialize in getting more accurate information.

History of origin of the term anthropology

The term anthropology was first used in Renaissance Germany in the work of Magnus Hundt and Otto Casmann.

Anthropology and many other current fields are the intellectual results of the comparative methods developed in the earlier 19th century. Theorists in such diverse fields as anatomy, linguistics, and Ethnology, making feature-by-feature comparisons of their subject matters, were beginning to suspect that similarities between animals, languages, and folkways were the result of processes or laws unknown to them then. For them, the publication of Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was the epiphany of everything they had begun to suspect. Darwin himself arrived at his conclusions through comparison of species he had seen in agronomy and in the wild.

Darwin and Wallace unveiled evolution in the late 1850s. There was an immediate rush to bring it into the social sciences. Paul Broca in Paris was in the process of breaking away from the Société de Biologie to form the first of the explicitly anthropological societies, the Société d’Anthropologie de Paris, meeting for the first time in Paris in 1859. When he read Darwin, he became an immediate convert to Transformisme, as the French called evolutionism. His definition now became “the study of the human group, considered as a whole, in its details, and in relation to the rest of nature”.” Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthropology

What is Social Anthropology?

Social anthropology is very alike to cultural anthropology with the difference that it includes customs, economic and political organization, gender relations, socialization, and religion. Some of the specializations on social anthropology are medicine anthropology and musicology.

History of the science

” Social anthropology has historical roots in a number of 19th-century disciplines, including ethnology, folklore studies, and Classics, among others. (See History of anthropology.) Its immediate precursor took shape in the work of Edward Burnett Tylor and James George Frazer in the late 19th century and underwent major changes in both method and theory during the period 1890-1920 with a new emphasis on original fieldwork, long-term holistic study of social behavior in natural settings, and the introduction of French and German social theory. Bronislaw Malinowski, one of the most important influences on British social anthropology, emphasized long-term fieldwork in which anthropologists work in the vernacular and immerse themselves in the daily practices of local people. This development was bolstered by Franz Boas’s introduction of cultural relativism arguing that cultures are based on different ideas about the world and can therefore only be properly understood in terms of their own standards and values.

Museums such as the British Museum weren’t the only site of anthropological studies: with the New Imperialism period, starting in the 1870s, zoos became unattended “laboratories”, especially the so-called “ethnological exhibitions” or “Negro villages”. Thus, “savages” from the colonies were displayed, often nudes, in cages, in what has been called “human zoos”. For example, in 1906, Congolese pygmy Ota Benga was put by anthropologist Madison Grant in a cage in the Bronx Zoo, labelled “the missing link” between an orangutan and the “white race” — Grant, a renowned eugenicist, was also the author of The Passing of the Great Race (1916). Such exhibitions were attempts to illustrate and prove in the same movement the validity of scientific racism, which the first formulation may be found in Arthur de Gobineau’s An Essay on the Inequality of Human Races (1853–55). In 1931, the Colonial Exhibition in Paris still displayed Kanaks from New Caledonia in the “indigenous village”; it received 24 million visitors in six months, thus demonstrating the popularity of such “human zoos”.” Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_anthropology

What is Cultural Anthropology?

Cultural anthropology is a branch of anthropology and is focused on cultural variation. The methodology used in this science is rich, based on participant observation. The anthropologist has to be a lot of time on the site of study because of the need of doing surveys and interviews.

” Since humans acquire culture through the learning processes of enculturation and socialization, people living in different places or different circumstances develop different cultures. Anthropologists have also pointed out that through culture people can adapt to their environment in non-genetic ways, so people living in different environments will often have different cultures. Much of anthropological theory has originated in an appreciation of and interest in the tension between the local (particular cultures) and the global (a universal human nature, or the web of connections between people in distinct places/circumstances).

The rise of cultural anthropology took place within the context of the late 19th century when questions regarding which cultures were “primitive” and which were “civilized” occupied the minds of not only Marx and Freud but many others. Colonialism and its processes increasingly brought European thinkers into direct or indirect contact with “primitive others.” The relative status of various humans, some of whom had modern advanced technologies that included engines and telegraphs, while others lacked anything but face-to-face communication techniques and still lived a Paleolithic lifestyle, was of interest to the first generation of cultural anthropologists.” Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_anthropology

What is Linguistic Anthropology?

Linguistic anthropology is the study of how language has influencesocial life. This science started with the need to document endangered languages. During the last century, it has turned directly to aspects of language use and structure. This science also has to do with how language gives shape to communication, gives social identity and makes human beings part of groups, turning language in a cultural identification.

https://embed.ted.com/talks/lang/en/mark_pagel_how_language_transformed_humanity
History of the development of the science

” Alessandro Duranti has noted, three paradigms have emerged over the history of the subdiscipline: the first, now known as “anthropological linguistics,” focuses on the documentation of languages; the second, known as “linguistic anthropology,” engages in theoretical studies of language use; the third, developed over the past two or three decades, studies questions related to other subfields of anthropology with the tools of linguistic inquiry. Though they developed sequentially, all three paradigms are still practiced today.”

 

 

What is Biological Anthropology?

Biological anthropology is also known as physical anthropology. This discipline relates to human beings, behavior, and biological aspect. It also studies the human being and the relatives that include hominin ancestors.

Biological anthropology branches

As a subfield of anthropology, biological anthropology itself is further divided into several branches. All branches are united in their common application of evolutionary theory to understanding human morphology and behavior.

  • Paleoanthropology is the study of fossil evidence for human evolution, mainly using remains from extinct hominin and other primate species to determine the morphological and behavioral changes in the human lineage, as well as the environment in which human evolution occurred.
  • Human biology is an interdisciplinary field of biology, biological anthropology, nutrition, and medicine, which concerns international, population-level perspectives on health, evolution, anatomy, physiology, molecular biology, neuroscience, and genetics.
  • Primatology is the study of non-human primate behavior, morphology, and genetics. Primatologists use phylogenetic methods to infer which traits humans share with other primates and which are human-specific adaptations.
  • Human behavioral ecology is the study of behavioral adaptations (foraging, reproduction, ontogeny) from the evolutionary and ecologic perspectives (see behavioral ecology). It focuses on human adaptive responses (physiological, developmental, genetic) to environmental stresses.
  • Bioarchaeology is the study of past human cultures through examination of human remains recovered in an archaeological context. The examined human remains usually are limited to bones but may include preserved soft tissue. Researchers in bioarchaeology combine the skill sets of human osteology, paleopathology, and archaeology, and often consider the cultural and mortuary context of the remains.
  • Paleopathology is the study of disease in antiquity. This study focuses not only on pathogenic conditions observable in bones or mummified soft tissue, but also on nutritional disorders, variation in stature or morphology of bones over time, evidence of physical trauma, or evidence of occupationally derived biomechanic stress.
  • Forensic anthropology is the application of biological anthropology within a legal setting. Forensic anthropologists often assist law enforcement, coroners, and medical examiners in identifying and analyzing human remains.” source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_anthropology

 

Brief History of Rome and Jerusalem

About 400 years before the birth of Jesus, Jews and Romans started interacting. When hardships due to war in the east became to burdensome many Jews moved to Rome (As well as other parts of Europe).


The Sicarii were led by descendents of Judas of Galilee, who helped foster revolt against direct Roman rule in 6 CE, when they attempted to carry out a census of the Jews under the rule of Roman governor Quirinius in Syria, so that they could tax them. Judas famously proclaimed that the Jews should be ruled by God alone.Sicarii terrorism began as Jewish resistance to Roman rule in the region, which began in 40 BCE. Fifty six years later, in 6 CE, Judea and two other districts were combined and put under the control of Roman rule in what would later be considered greater Syria. Jewish groups began violent resistance to Roman rule around 50 CE, when the Sicarii and other groups started using guerrilla or terrorist tactics. All out war between the Jews and the Romans broke out in 67, when Romans invaded. The war ended in 70 CE, when Roman forces devastated Jerusalem. Masada, Herod’s famous fortress was conquered by siege in 74. http://www.ccel.org/j/josephus/works/… The Roman legions surrounded the city and began to slowly squeeze the life out of the Jewish stronghold. By the year 70, the attackers had breached Jerusalem’s outer walls and began a systematic ransacking of the city. The assault culminated in the burning and destruction of the Temple that served as the center of Judaism. In victory, the Romans slaughtered thousands. Of those sparred from death: thousands more were enslaved and sent to toil in the mines of Egypt, others were dispersed to arenas throughout the Empire to be butchered for the amusement of the public. The Temple’s sacred relics were taken to Rome where they were displayed in celebration of the victory. The rebellion sputtered on for another three years and was finally extinguished in 73 AD with the fall of the various pockets of resistance including the stronghold at Masada. “…the Jews let out a shout of dismay that matched the tragedy.” Our only first-hand account of the Roman assault on the Temple comes from the Jewish historian Josephus Flavius. Josephus was a former leader of the Jewish Revolt who had surrendered to the Romans and had won favor from Vespasian. In gratitude, Josephus took on Vespasian’s family name – Flavius – as his own. We join his account as the Romans fight their way into the inner sanctum of the Temple: “…the rebels shortly after attacked the Romans again, and a clash followed between the guards of the sanctuary and the troops who were putting out the fire inside the inner court; the latter routed the Jews and followed in hot pursuit right up to the Temple itself. Then one of the soldiers, without awaiting any orders and with no dread of so momentous a deed, but urged on by some supernatural force, snatched a blazing piece of wood and, climbing on another soldier’s back, hurled the flaming brand through a low golden window that gave access, on the north side, to the rooms that surrounded the sanctuary. As the flames shot up, the Jews let out a shout of dismay that matched the tragedy; they flocked to the rescue, with no thought of sparing their lives or husbanding their strength; for the sacred structure that they had constantly guarded with such devotion was vanishing before their very eyes.

The history of the Jews in the Roman Empire traces the interaction of Jews and Romans during the period of the Roman Empire (27 BC – AD 476). Their cultures began to overlap in the centuries just before the Christian Era. Jews, as part of the Jewish diaspora, migrated to Rome and Roman Europe from the Land of IsraelAsia MinorBabylon and Alexandria in response to economic hardship and incessant warfare over the land of Israel between the Ptolemaic and Seleucid empires. In Rome, Jewish communities enjoyed privileges and thrived economically, becoming a significant part of the Empire’s population (perhaps as much as ten percent).[1]

The Roman general Pompey in his eastern campaign established the Roman province of Syria in 64 BC and conquered Jerusalem in 63 BC. Julius Caesar conquered Alexandria c. 47 BC and defeated Pompey in 45 BC. Under Julius Caesar, Judaism was officially recognised as a legal religion, a policy followed by the first Roman emperor, AugustusHerod the Great was designated ‘King of the Jews’ by the Roman Senate in c. 40 BC, the Roman province of Egypt was established in 30 BC, and Judea properSamaria and Idumea (biblical Edom) were converted to the Roman province of Iudaea in 6 AD. Jewish–Roman tensions resulted in several Jewish–Roman wars, 66–135 AD, which resulted in the destruction of Jerusalem and the Second Temple and institution of the Jewish Tax in 70 and Hadrian‘s attempt to create a new Roman colony named Aelia Capitolina c. 130.

Around this time, Christianity developed from Second Temple Judaism. In 313, Constantine and Licinius issued the Edict of Milan giving official recognition to Christianity as a legal religion. Constantine the Great moved the Roman capital from Rome to Constantinople (‘New Rome’) c. 330, sometimes considered the start of the Byzantine Empire, and with the Edict of Thessalonica in 380, Christianity became the state church of the Roman Empire. The Christian emperors persecuted their Jewish subjects and restricted their rights.[1]

Some interesting links to share with you guys!

Who is Rama and the Ramayana?

Rama or Ramachandra is one of the principal gods of in Hinduism. This god shares its importance with Krishna and Gautama Buddha. Countless myths include Rama in them. In this video, Hinduism culture will overflow.

“Rama (/ˈrɑːmə/; Sanskrit: राम, IAST: Rāma), also known as Ramachandra, is a major deity of Hinduism. He is the seventh avatar of the god Vishnu, one of his most popular incarnations along with Krishna and Gautama Buddha. In Rama-centric traditions of Hinduism, he is considered the Supreme Being.

Rama was born to Kaushalya and Dasharatha in Ayodhya, the ruler of the Kingdom of Kosala. His siblings included Lakshmana, Bharata, and Shatrughna. He married Sita. Though born in a royal family, their life is described in the Hindu texts as one challenged by unexpected changes such as an exile into impoverished and difficult circumstances, ethical questions, and moral dilemmas. Of all their travails, the most notable is the kidnapping of Sita by demon-king Ravana, followed by the determined and epic efforts of Rama and Lakshmana to gain her freedom and destroy the evil Ravana against great odds. The entire life story of Rama, Sita, and their companions allegorically discusses duties, rights and social responsibilities of an individual. It illustrates dharma and dharmic living through model characters.

Rama is especially important to Vaishnavism. He is the central figure of the ancient Hindu epic Ramayana, a text historically popular in the South Asian and Southeast Asian cultures. His ancient legends have attracted bhasya (commentaries) and extensive secondary literature and inspired performance arts. Two such texts, for example, are the Adhyatma Ramayana – a spiritual and theological treatise considered foundational by Ramanandi monasteries, and the Ramcharitmanas – a popular treatise that inspires thousands of Ramlila festival performances during autumn every year in India. Rama legends are also found in the texts of Jainism and Buddhism, though he is sometimes called Pauma or Padma in these texts, and their details vary significantly from the Hindu versions.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rama

Why Human Evolution Matters?

Human evolution takes a lot of good and bad ideas that have been exploited and transformed by a single generation and improved by the next ones, different from natural selection evolution, DNA would not be able to do in so short time. Humans have evolved from living in caves to living in houses made of bricks and wood. Time ago human beings traveled on horse´s back, later on, a wagon pulled by horses and today we have completely left this transportation means.

Some important facts we need to know about our own evolution are:

  • The bigger the population more innovators we have.
  • Every generation improves things the past ones created.
  • It still remains a mystery what makes humans different in an evolutionary aspect.
  • Collective learning is called to the ability of humans to accumulate information.

Pro Gender-Equality Examples of American Mythology

Fire Myth

Hawaiian mythology includes the character of Captain Cook and Pele one of the most powerful Goddess in Hawaii. Goddess Pele controls the lava of volcanoes the same that gives the country its fertile soils but also has the power to destroy everything in its path.

The White Buffalo Calf Woman 

The myth takes part in the Great Plains in the United States and part of Canada in the “Buffalo Nation”. The people that belong to it, have a complex religious system. The White Buffalo Calf Woman is a culture bringer.

Watch the video and hear the fantastic story lying beneath this interesting names… 🙂