Kim Stanley Robinson talks about the problems caused by global climate change. He strives to address these issues through his novels. He also talks about a group of dimensions that should be considered at all times: Science, Technology and the Spiritual.
“Agroforestry systems can be advantageous over conventional agricultural, and forest production methods. They can offer increased productivity, economic benefits, and more diversity in the ecological goods and services provided . (An example of this was seen in trying to conserve Milicia excelsa.)
Biodiversity in agroforestry systems is typically higher than in conventional agricultural systems. With two or more interacting plant species in a given land area, it creates a more complex habitat that can support a wider variety of birds, insects, and other animals. Depending upon the application, impacts of agroforestry can include:
- Reducing poverty through increased production of wood and other tree products for home consumption and sale
- Contributing to food security by restoring the soil fertility for food crops
- Cleaner water through reduced nutrient and soil runoff
- Countering global warming and the risk of hunger by increasing the number of drought-resistant trees and the subsequent production of fruits, nuts and edible oils
- Reducing deforestation and pressure on woodlands by providing farm-grown fuelwood
- Reducing or eliminating the need for toxic chemicals (insecticides, herbicides, etc.)
- Through more diverse farm outputs, improved human nutrition
- In situations where people have limited access to mainstream medicines, providing growing space for medicinal plants
- Increased crop stability
- Multifunctional site use i.e. crop production and animal grazing.
- Typically more drought resistant.
- Stabilises depleted soils from erosion
Agroforestry practices may also realize a number of other associated environmental goals, such as:
- Carbon sequestration
- Odour, dust, and noise reduction
- Green space and visual aesthetics
- Enhancement or maintenance of wildlife habitat” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agroforestry
” Agroecology is the study of ecological processes applied to agricultural production systems. The prefix agro- refers to agriculture. Bringing ecological principles to bear in agroecosystems can suggest novel management approaches that would not otherwise be considered. The term is often used imprecisely and may refer to “a science, a movement, [or] a practice”. Agroecologists study a variety of agroecosystems, and the field of agroecology is not associated with any one particular method of farming, whether it be organic, integrated, or conventional; intensive or extensive, although it has much more in common with some of the before mentioned farming systems.
Agroecologists do not unanimously oppose technology or inputs in agriculture but instead assess how, when, and if technology can be used in conjunction with natural, social and human assets. Agroecology proposes a context- or site-specific manner of studying agroecosystems, and as such, it recognizes that there is no universal formula or recipe for the success and maximum well-being of an agroecosystem. Thus, agroecology is not defined by certain management practices, such as the use of natural enemies in place of insecticides, or polyculture in place of monoculture.
Instead, agroecologists may study questions related to the four system properties of agroecosystems: productivity, stability, sustainability, and equitability. As opposed to disciplines that are concerned with only one or some of these properties, agroecologists see all four properties as interconnected and integral to the success of an agroecosystem. Recognizing that these properties are found on varying spatial scales, agroecologists do not limit themselves to the study of agroecosystems at any one scale: gene-organism-population-community-ecosystem-landscape-biome, field-farm-community-region-state-country-continent-global.
Agroecologists study these four properties through an interdisciplinary lens, using natural sciences to understand elements of agroecosystems such as soil properties and plant-insect interactions, as well as using social sciences to understand the effects of farming practices on rural communities, economic constraints to developing new production methods, or cultural factors determining farming practices.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agroecology