The fascinating physics of everyday life | Helen Czerski

Physics doesn’t just happen in a fancy lab — it happens when you push a piece of buttered toast off the table or drop a couple of raisins in a fizzy drink or watch a coffee spill dry. Become a more interesting dinner guest as physicist Helen Czerski presents various concepts in physics you can become familiar with using everyday things found in your kitchen.

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How to grout tile?

After the tile is mounted, the next step is grouting the tiles, this is a less time-consuming and work exhaustive task than the installation, but it is actually more important for a long lasting job; it will also guarantee that the floor under the tile stays safe from moisture.
Grouting can be a rewarding task because filling those gaps will make the tiles look pretty.

What is grout
Grout is a form of concrete (fluid) that is used to fill gaps or spaces. Grout is a mixture of water, cement, and sand; although you may already find premixes in the market both in powder form (cement and sand only) or premixed fluid containers (easier but less recommended).
Tiling grout is often used to fill the spaces between tiles or mosaics, and secure tiles to its base.
What you need to know about grout
Regular grout comes in a diversity of colors, what you want to do is choose the one that matches the color of your tiles, also if you want to minimize color disparity you not only need to use as little water as possible (for powder mixes), but also mix as thoroughly as possible, it is best to mix it by hand, try to achieve a creamy peanut butter consistency.
Light grout tends to emphasize the individual tiles by blending in, or becoming invisible, while dark grout tends to emphasize patterns.
If you choose a color that matches your tiles, then you will have a continuous feeling. If you want your tiles to stand out, then choose a contrasting color for your grout. If you are grouting a high traffic area you are better off with a dark grout since light color ones tend to get dirty pretty fast, and it is difficult to clean.
There is sanded and unsanded grout. Sanded grout is stronger and more resistant, if your space between tiles is larger than 1/8 of an inch, then you should use sanded grout. Unsanded grout is recommended for soft stones tiles like polished limestone or marble.
How to apply grout
If you are re-grouting an old tiled surface, you first need to clean the area by scraping and vacuuming.
You are going to need a float to spread the grout. Smear the grout diagonally across the tile to force it deep into the joints and prevent it from being sucked back out as your float slides along. Grout walls first and floors last, that way you don´t have chances to ruin the already finished up floor. To remove the bulk grout, you need to wipe by doing a couple of “S” movements. You will also need to sponge off the surface with a damped (make sure it is not wet) sponge, this is also a diagonal movement, remember to rinse your sponge constantly. After it is completely dry (30 to 45 minutes), you will see a haze has formed, polish away this haze with a microfiber towel.
Corners do not need grouting, corners tend to crack, therefore you are best off with caulk.
A very important Tip
Re-mix the grout at least every 15 minutes, and check if it needs a little more water to keep the ideal consistency.

New Social Development Tools Enabled by Satellites and Space Research

There is an international agreement that explains how all related to space discovery is and should be used for the benefit of all human kind. If you mix this new sustainable development goals of the UN, you find that the research and innovation in aerospace can be used to address humanity’s biggest challenges.

Sustainable Development Goals
Sustainable Development Goals

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are 17 global goals set by the UN.  These include solving issues related to povertyhungerhealtheducationclimate changegender equalitywater,sanitationenergyenvironment and social justice.

These are examples of   how space science helps achieve goals of humanity

 

  1. Satellite Communication: Disaster Recovery, Biological Global Tracking for Preservation and Famine Management.
  2. Ergonomic for Extreme Circumstances, can be translated for better ergonomic in “terrestrial” experiences.
  3. The objective Global Sharing of Science Development allows for new opportunities for women.

New to Lackland Air Force Base? Read This.

Lackland Air Force Base is located in Bexar County, Texas. It is the only entering processing station for Air Force for basic military training and thus its called the “Gateway to the Airforce”. Lackland Air Force Base is part of Joint Base San Antonio which is a union between the United States Army Fort Sam Houston and the United States Air Force Randolph Air Force Base and Lackland Air Force Base, which were merged on 1 October 2010.

Featured Image Credit: United States Airforce

What’s it like during BMT for the AF on Weeks 0-3?

What’s it like during BMT for the AF on Weeks 4-6?

 

Sources:

  •  https://www.lackland-afb-graduation.com/
  • https://afwm.org/

 

 

 

Lackland AFB BMT Graduation Day – Overview

The Lackland Graduation is a 4-day event starting on Thursday and ending on a Sunday. Get day a day ahead, as things start very early on Thursday morning. Learn about lodging and booking early here.

Advise No. 1: Always let your airman know you are coming. Parents have missed their Airman due to lack of communication. Before we even start, have a look at this awesome video on nature and what to expect on graduation day. Trust me, it will be a great use of your next 7 minutes:

This is a great way to plan ahead with a fantastic advice from “Our Gray House” including specific dates:

GRADUATION SCHEDULE

Thursday: Airman’s Run, Orientation Briefings, Retreat, Honor Graduate Ceremony, and Base Liberty.

  • Orientation Briefings (7:00am, 9:00am): Anyone can attend either of the briefings at 7:00am or 9:00am at the Reception Center. Do NOT skip the briefing because you will miss out on other important info, including which Heritage flight your Airman will be in for the ceremonies, who made honor grad, what the special events are for that weekend and the map of where the Flights stand for the ceremonies. Also note that the briefings will not interfere with any ceremonies, as they are over in about 20 minutes. You’ll have plenty of time to find a spot for the next event! You only have to go to one of the briefings.
  • Airman’s Run (8:00 am): Cheer the Airmen as they run by singing ‘jodies’ in flight formation.
  • Spouse Briefing (9:45 am): The spouse briefing is held in the Chiefs Room inside of the Reception Center (front desk can direct you to this room). This is a great opportunity for spouses to receive specific information about the Air Force life from a spouse’s perspective. After the briefing concludes, spouses can opt to sit in a special seating area to review the Coin Ceremony.
  • Top Performer Ceremony (10:30am): The Commander of Basic Military Training invites honor graduates and their families to a special ceremony in their honor prior to the start of the Airman’s Coin Ceremony.
  • Airman’s Coin Ceremony followed immediately by Retreat:  in which we pay tribute to the flag. Meet with your Airman immediately afterward for the Tap-out. Airmen who are not tapped out will meet at the flagpole when they are dismissed.
  • Base Liberty – Immidiatly after ceremonies –  Most Airmen are released for Base Liberty immediately following the ceremonies. (Some Airmen may have limited visitation due to training requirements).
  • End of Liberty (8:00pm) – Airmen due back in their dormitory. Your Airman’s commander or military training instructor may impose an earlier return time.

Friday: Orientation Briefing, Parade, Open House and Town Pass

  • Orientation Briefing (7:15am): Pfingston Reception Center. You do not have to attend Friday’s Orientation Briefing if you have already attended an Orientation Briefing on Thursday. The same topics are discussed during Thursday’s and Friday’s Orientation Briefings.
  • Handicap Plus One Transportation to Parade Ground (7:15am-8:30am): Buses depart Pfingston Reception Center for easy access to the parade grounds for all Handicap guests plus one person to assist them. Picks up in cul de sac. Limited Parking is available to visitors at the parade grounds so plan on leaving early.
  • Graduation Parade (9:00am): Watch Airmen “Pass In Review” and reaffirm their “Oath of Enlistment” at graduation parade; Airmen are released for base liberty and may take photographs by historical aircraft positioned around the parade field.
  • Return Bus (Only for Handicap Visitor plus one to Assist) (9:45am): Buses depart the parade ground for the Pfingston Reception Center. All other visitors must drive or walk back.
  • Squadron Open House (10:15-11:15am): Visit your Airman’s dormitory; parking in squadrons is prohibited. 
  • Town Pass (Airmen are released immediately following conclusion of Squadron Open House.)
  • End of Liberty (8:00pm): Airmen are due back in their dormitory.

Saturday: Town Pass Day

  • Town Pass (9:00am): Airmen begin arriving at the Reception Center to start Town Pass. View ideas on what to do on Town Pass Day
  • End of Town Pass (8:00pm): Airmen are due back in their dormitory

Sunday: Religious Services and Base Liberty

  • Religious Services (6:30am-4:00pm): If you and your Airman plan to attend religious services, you must attend your Airman’s designated service for their denomination. You must meet your Airman at the Chapel at the designated time (schedule with them). You cannot meet them at the squadrons.
  • Base Liberty (9:00am): Airmen are released from their squadrons for base liberty with families. Those who are awarded to Top Physically Fit Airmen, members of Honor Flights, and Honor Graduates will receive a Special Town Pass for Sunday. All others will receive base liberty.
  • End of Liberty (6:00pm): Airmen are due back in their dorms. Your Airman’s commander or military training instructor may impose an earlier return time.

Source: https://afwm.org/grad-info/bmt-schedule-of-events/

Also please note:

  • YOUR TRAINEE IS PROHIBITED FROM:
    • Purchasing, possessing or consuming any alcoholic beverage.
    • Purchasing, possessing or using any tobacco products.
    • Purchasing, possessing or using any over the counter medication/supplements not prescribed or cleared by a military medical doctor.
    • Purchasing, possessing or inhaling aerosol products. They are strictly prohibited and they are not allowed to purchase them while attending BMT.
    • Purchasing or possessing any obscene or pornographic material.
    • Taking any food items into the dormitory.
    • Operating any motor vehicle.
    • Going off base, except for approved town pass and officially approved duty.
    • Wearing civilian clothing. They must remain in uniform at all times to include town pass. Swimming at local hotels and theme parks is prohibited.
    • Visiting the Inns of Lackland, base lodging facilities or bases housing unless family members reside in these accommodations during graduation liberty/town pass. They must receive squadron leadership approval prior to visiting these locations.
    • Engaging in public displays of affection (PDA); i.e., kissing, holding hands, hugging, walking arm-in-arm (escorting), since it detracts from the professionalism and standards of conduct expected from military members while in uniform. While avoiding PDA is the expected custom of all military members, there are some brief exceptions. A “brief” display of affection, such as a hug or kiss at homecomings, deployments and graduations are acceptable with moderation and respect.
    • Until they depart BMT they will held accountable for all of the 25 “Trainee Rules of Conduct”. The ones not included are for the “training environment” activities. These are the most important rules to follow while on Town Pass or Base Liberty. Enjoy your time and keep the rules in mind when with your Airmen.
  • Airmen must remain in the San Antonio metropolitan area.  Other than Fiesta Texas and Randolph AFB (which are already approved), Airmen must coordinate exceptions to this limitation through their Training Squadron Leadership. Airmen are also prohibited from visiting the ‘off-limits’ establishments discussed during their Town Pass briefing. A listing of these establishments is also displayed on their dormitory bulletin board.

SOURCES:

  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_OoqORyHQ-U
  • https://afwm.org/grad-info/bmt-schedule-of-events/

What to expect in -BMT- Basic Military Training at Lackalnd Air Force Base

You may also be interested in learning about what to do when Sightseeing at Lackland Air Force Base,  Lodging at Lackland Air Force Base – Book Early for Graduation or BMT Graduation Rings!

This is what to expect at BMT at Lackland AFB.

 

 

Common terms and abbreviations 

In Lackland Air Force Base a number of terms are used in such a way that your airman will probably end up using them with you. If you want to learn more about those terms and abbreviations follow this link.

Communication

Communication in Lackland is completely different from things in the real world. Yes, you heard it, students in Lackland are not allowed to use their cellphones and sending videos and pictures is prohibited. Families will only hear from their airman in phone calls and letters.

 

Transportation

You can take your personal car with you if you do take exit 4 I-410W and go through airman’s gate, which is open 24 hours a day. You can also rent your car too which as an easy way of not complicating yourself just make sure you check which are the car agencies available at San Antonio International Airport. The airport is located 18 miles away from Lackland Airforce Base.

Taxi drivers can take you from the airport to Lackland but you have to check that the driver has a valid military ID because they won’t be able to ride in the base.  Some of the taxi companies around that are available are:

* Yellow Cab Taxi (210) 222-2222
* A1 Express Taxi (210) 224-8294
* AAA Taxi Service (210) 599-9999
* National Cab (210) 434-4444
* Towne Car Taxi (210) 826-8294

Weather

During the graduation ceremony, there is not a specific dress for the visitors. Comfortable clothes are recommended since you will be sitting in bleachers.

The experience of 3rd CCS from Lackland Air Force Base told from day zero till graduation. Know what is the real life in the AFB.

Information is taken from:

https://www.lackland-afb-graduation.com/

https://afwm.org/

What to do? Sightseeing at Lackland Air Force Base.

In Lackland Air Force Base has 2 museums, it has objects, aircrafts, weapons that date from World War I. There is also a great display of airplanes like P-38, Lightning, B-17 Flying Fortress, and  P-82 Twin Mustang. Tourists can stay in the surrounding hotels. And enjoy them with their airmen during base liberties.

Air Force Security Forces Museum San Antonio Texas

US Air Force Airman Heritage Museum San Antonio Texas

 

Planes on Display at Lackland AFB San Antonio, TX

You can also take advantage of these pre-weekend and weekend specials nearby:

  • Donate BloodYou’ve got what it takes to save three lives with a single donation.  There will be a line in the reception center (near the restrooms) from 8:15 to 9:30am and again from 11:30am to 1:30pm.  Everyone who donates blood receives a military coin.
  • Gateway Club Lunch/Dinner Opportunity: Lunch Buffet available on Thursday from 11-3pm ($9.95 per person), Dinner Buffet available from 4-7:30pm ($9.95 per person).  Located at Lackland AFB, 1650 Kenly Avenue, Bldg. 2490.  Large groups urged to call ahead to reserve space: (210) 645-7034.
  • Greenside Grill Breakfast/Lunch/Dinner Opportunity:  Located on Lackland AFB at the Gateway Hills golf course, 1800 Dimsted Place.  Breakfast favorites include tacos, pancakes, French toast and assorted omelets.   Lunch favorites include hamburgers, Chicken Fried Steak, Hot dogs, Fried Chicken, Tuna, Chicken salad or deli sandwiches.  Great Steak Night is also on Thursday from 4-7pm.  $15 in advance, $17 at the door (Children’s menu also available for $6.00).  Space is limited to the first 80 people who pay for the dinner. Please call 210-671-3466 to reserve your steak dinner on Thursday of graduation weekend.  For more information, click HERE.  NOTE: The Great Steak Night for Thanksgiving week will be on Wednesday the 23rd instead of Thursday, due to the holiday.
  • Suzie’s Kitchen Lunch Opportunity: Located in the Skylark Bowling Center at Lackland AFB (1610 Luke Blvd., Bldg. 6476), Suzie’s Kitchen specializes in pizza, subs and wings.  Lunch specials from 11-2pm. 210-671-1234.

Sources:

Military Spouse Guides

AFWM

TripAdvisor

Why is Quinoa Grain so Popular?

Quinoa grain has become popular in many countries where it is not naturally grown such as United States, Canada, Europe and Australia which in turn increased the crop value.  Quinoa grain is also appreciated by the many health benefits that it is associated including losing weight and high content of protein.

Nutritional value

Raw, uncooked quinoa is 13% water, 64% carbohydrates, 14% protein, and 6% fat (top nutrient table). Nutritional evaluations indicate that a 100 g (3.5 oz) serving of raw quinoa is a rich source (20% or higher of the Daily Value, DV) of protein, dietary fiber, several B vitamins, including 46% DV for folate, and dietary minerals.

After cooking, which is the typical preparation for eating, quinoa is 72% water, 21% carbohydrates, 4% protein, and 2% fat and its nutrient contents are collectively and substantially reduced. In a 100 g (3.5 oz) serving, cooked quinoa provides 120 calories and is an excellent source of manganese and phosphorus (30% and 22% DV, respectively), and a moderate source (10-19% DV) of dietary fiber, folate, and the dietary minerals, iron, zinc, and magnesium.

Quinoa is gluten-free and considered easy to digest. Possibly owing to these qualities, it is an experimental crop in NASA’s Controlled Ecological Life Support System for long-duration human occupied space flights.” Taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quinoa#Rising_popularity_and_crop_value

The Greatest Showman

Hugh Jackman leaves the x-men outfit to put on a show and …what a show! perhaps, in the words of the greatest showman “The Greatest Show on Earth?” Hugh had to research the life of “P. T. Barnum” whom he confidently calls “The Father of Pop Culture” to participate in the film about one of most amazing stories of a short era that flashed by.

The Greatest Showman is a 2017 American biographical musical drama film directed by Michael Gracey, written by Jenny Bicks and Bill Condon and starring Hugh Jackman, Zac Efron, Michelle Williams, Rebecca Ferguson, and Zendaya. The film is inspired by the story of how P. T. Barnum started the Barnum & Bailey Circus and the lives of its attractions.-https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Greatest_Showman

Jackman also commented that it was fun working with Zendaya, and that his daughter is a huge fan! ITs kind of ironic to think that her daughter was more impressed with that than with her dad being Wolverine. 😉

Now for some real stories about the Buzz Making founder of the “Greatest Show on Earth”, a genius showman how came up with the showbiz magic that is still being used today.

Where does Vainilla Extract Come from?

” Vanilla extract is a solution containing the flavor compound vanillin as the primary ingredient. Pure vanilla extract is made by macerating and percolating vanilla pods in a solution of ethanol and water. In the United States, in order for a vanilla extract to be called pure, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires that the solution contains a minimum of 35% alcohol and 100 g of vanilla beans per liter (13.35 ounces per gallon). Double and triple strength (up to 20-fold) vanilla extracts are available.

Vanilla extract is the most common form of vanilla used today. Mexican, Tahitian, Indonesian and Bourbon vanilla are the main varieties. Bourbon vanilla is named for the period when the island of Réunion was ruled by the Bourbon kings of France; it does not contain Bourbon whiskey.
Natural vanilla flavoring is derived from real vanilla beans with little to no alcohol. The maximum amount of alcohol that is usually present is only 2–3%. Imitation vanilla extract contains vanillin, made either from guaiacol or from lignin, a byproduct of the wood pulp industry.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vanilla_extract

Who is Barbie?

” Barbie is a fashion doll manufactured by the American toy company Mattel, Inc. and launched in March 1959. American businesswoman Ruth Handler is credited with the creation of the doll using a German doll called Bild Lilli as her inspiration.

Barbie is the figurehead of a brand of Mattel dolls and accessories, including other family members and collectible dolls. Barbie has been an important part of the toy fashion doll market for over fifty years, and has been the subject of numerous controversies and lawsuits, often involving parodies of the doll and her lifestyle.

Mattel has sold over a billion Barbie dolls, making it the company’s largest and most profitable line. However, sales have declined sharply since 2014.[1] The doll transformed the toy business in affluent communities worldwide by becoming a vehicle for the sale of related merchandise (accessories, clothes, friends of Barbie, etc.). She had a significant impact on social values by conveying characteristics of female independence, and with her multitude of accessories, an idealized upscale life-style that can be shared with affluent friends.”

Strange Solutions That Worked.

 

Weird Hiccup Cure – Hiccups are annoying; they go away as sudden as they come. However, there is a simple solution to this problem, albeit a little bit gross.

Condor Cluster – Giving the Air Force Research Laboratory a low budget did not stop them from building their own supercomputer. Having not enough money to buy a supercomputer, they decided to buy 1760 Playstation 3 units.

Colours to influence behaviours – According to scientific research, some colours are effective in reducing one’s negative thoughts, be it suicidal tendencies or aggressiveness.

Plastic Wishbones – Its Traditional for two people to break apart a birds wishbone after extracting it from a cooked dinner.

Bottled Air & Bags of Dirt – When travelling overseas, it is always a good idea to bring something that reminds you of your home.

Shooter Stopped with a Hug – If you ever encounter a man with a gun, your natural instinct would be to hide or run away as fast as you can.

Black Dyed Water – It is said that the more you prohibit people, the more they are inclined to do it.

Face Masks Fooling Bengal Tigers – Bengal tigers are considered one of the most dangerous predators in India.

Ants for Stitches – Sutures weren’t a thing back as early as 1000BC, so our ancestors had to make do with what they had on their hands. Plant fibres, animal hair, ants…

“Instant” Baggage Claims – Having to wait to claim your baggage is extremely infuriating, especially if you just had a long flight. Using Typewriters Against

Spies – Within days of Edward Snowden’s revelations, Kremlin agents were quick to replace all their high-end computers with something more traditional – typewriters.

Fish Eating Dead Skin – Turkish people came up with a weird solution to treat psoriasis – fish.

Piano Stairs – Ever wish you can have fun while using the stairs? Then piano stairs can do the trick.

Balls to Reduce Evaporation – California often experiences drought spells, so to prevent the Ivanhoe reservoir from getting dried up, they filled it balls – lots of it.

Flame Weeding – Tired of plucking weeds all day? Worried about contaminating the land with pesticides? Well, How about just flame-thrower-ing the ground? Sounds crazy but this solution, called ‘Flame weeding’ is an organic alternative, used by a number of conscious gardeners and agriculturalists around the world.

Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Gt_-yO72LI

What are The Benefits Agroforestry?

“Agroforestry systems can be advantageous over conventional agricultural, and forest production methods. They can offer increased productivity, economic benefits, and more diversity in the ecological goods and services provided . (An example of this was seen in trying to conserve Milicia excelsa.)

Biodiversity in agroforestry systems is typically higher than in conventional agricultural systems. With two or more interacting plant species in a given land area, it creates a more complex habitat that can support a wider variety of birds, insects, and other animals. Depending upon the application, impacts of agroforestry can include:

  • Reducing poverty through increased production of wood and other tree products for home consumption and sale
  • Contributing to food security by restoring the soil fertility for food crops
  • Cleaner water through reduced nutrient and soil runoff
  • Countering global warming and the risk of hunger by increasing the number of drought-resistant trees and the subsequent production of fruits, nuts and edible oils
  • Reducing deforestation and pressure on woodlands by providing farm-grown fuelwood
  • Reducing or eliminating the need for toxic chemicals (insecticides, herbicides, etc.)
  • Through more diverse farm outputs, improved human nutrition
  • In situations where people have limited access to mainstream medicines, providing growing space for medicinal plants
  • Increased crop stability
  • Multifunctional site use i.e. crop production and animal grazing.
  • Typically more drought resistant.
  • Stabilises depleted soils from erosion
  • Bioremediation

Agroforestry practices may also realize a number of other associated environmental goals, such as:

  • Carbon sequestration
  • Odour, dust, and noise reduction
  • Green space and visual aesthetics
  • Enhancement or maintenance of wildlife habitat” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agroforestry

Where does Margarine come From?

What?! Its not butter? Its not healthy? Its just cheaper and a cash cow? YES! But its got an awesome history!. Check it our!

” Margarine originated with the discovery by French chemist Michel Eugène Chevreul in 1813 of margaric acid (itself named after the pearly deposits of the fatty acid from Greekμαργαρίτης or μάργαρον (margaritēs / márgaron), meaning pearl-oyster or pearl, or μαργαρίς (margarís), meaning palm-tree, hence the relevance to palmitic acid). Scientists at the time regarded margaric acid, like oleic acid and stearic acid, as one of the three fatty acids that, in combination, form most animal fats. In 1853, the German structural chemist Wilhelm Heinrich Heintz analyzed margaric acid as simply a combination of stearic acid and the previously unknown palmitic acid.

Emperor Napoleon III of France offered a prize to anyone who could make a satisfactory butter alternative, suitable for use by the armed forces and the lower classes. French chemist Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès invented a substance he called oleomargarine, which became shortened to the trade name margarine. Mège-Mouriès patented the concept in 1869 and expanded his initial manufacturing operation from France but had little commercial success. In 1871, he sold the patent to the Dutch company Jurgens, now part of Unilever. In the same year a German pharmacist, Benedict Klein from Cologne, founded the first margarine factory “Benedict Klein Margarinewerke”, producing the brands Overstolz and Botteram.

John Steele wrote in his 1850 California gold miner’s journal: “I became acquainted with Mr. Dainels, from Baltimore, who… manufactured butter from tallow and lard, and it looked and tasted so much like real butter, that… I could not tell the difference. However, he deceived no one, but sold it for just what it was. He never explained the process of its manufacturer, and whether he was the originator of oleomargarine I do not know.”

The principal raw material in the original formulation of margarine was beef fat. In 1871, Henry W. Bradley of Binghamton, New York received U.S. Patent 110,626 for a process of creating margarine that combined vegetable oils (primarily cottonseed oil) with animal fats. Shortages in beef fat supply combined with advances by Boyce and Sabatier in the hydrogenation of plant materials soon accelerated the use of Bradley’s method, and between 1900 and 1920 commercial oleomargarine was produced from a combination of animal fats and hardened and unhardened vegetable oils. The depression of the 1930s, followed by the rationing of World War II, led to a reduction in supply of animal fat; and, by 1945, “original” margarine almost completely disappeared from the market. In the United States, problems with supply, coupled with changes in legislation, caused manufacturers to switch almost completely to vegetable oils and fats (oleomargarine) by 1950, and the industry was ready for an era of product development” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margarine

What is Google Earth?

“Google Earth is a computer program that renders a 3D representation of Earth based on satellite imagery. The program maps the Earth by the superimposition of images obtained from satellite imagery, aerial photography, and GIS data onto a 3D globe, allowing users to see cities and landscapes from various angles. Users can explore the globe by entering addresses and coordinates, or by using a keyboard or mouse. The program can also be downloaded on a smartphone or tablet, using a touch screen or stylus to navigate. Users may use the program to add their own data using Keyhole Markup Language and upload them through various sources, such as forums or blogs. Google Earth is able to show various kinds of images overlaid on the surface of the earth and is also a Web Map Service client.

In addition to Earth navigation, Google Earth provides a series of other tools through the desktop application. Additional globes for the Moon and Mars are available, as well as a tool for viewing the night sky. A flight simulatorgame is also included. Other features allow users to view photos from various places uploaded to Panoramio, information provided by Wikipedia on some locations, and Street View imagery. The web-based version of Google Earth also includes Voyager, a feature that periodically adds in-program tours, often presented by scientists and documentarians.

Google Earth has been viewed by some as a threat to privacy and national security, leading to the program being banned in multiple countries. Some countries have requested that certain areas be obscured in Google’s satellite images, usually areas containing military facilities.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_Earth

How to Harvest Cocoa Trees?

In the first place, we will learn about what is a cacao tree. ” A cacao tree is also called the cocoa tree. s a small (4–8 m (13–26 ft) tall) evergreen tree in the family Malvaceae, native to the deep tropical regions of Central and South America. Its seeds, cocoa beans, are used to make cocoa mass, cocoa powder, confectionery, ganache, and chocolate.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theobroma_cacao

How to harvest cocoa trees?

Usually, ripe cocoa pods are ripe and mature when they are red, yellow or purple coloured. Other varieties tend to ripe when they are orange coloured. The fruits grow from the trunk or the branches. During the year the pods need to be harvested since they do not ripe all together in the tree. With a curved knife, the pods are harvested from the trunks, when cutting the fruit the cutter has to be very careful since a deep wound on the trunk will damage where other flowers may appear to produce more fruit.

  1. The pods are opened with a machete to expose the seeds. The seeds and pulp are extracted and the rid is discarded.  The pulp and seeds are then piled in heaps, placed in bins, or laid out on grates for several days. During this time, the seeds and pulp undergo “sweating”, where the thick pulp liquefies as it ferments. The fermented pulp trickles away, leaving cocoa seeds behind to be collected. Sweating is important for the quality of the beans, which originally have a strong, bitter taste. If sweating is interrupted, the resulting cocoa may be ruined; if underdone, the cocoa seed maintains a flavour similar to raw potatoes and becomes susceptible to mildew. Some cocoa-producing countries distil alcoholic spirits using the liquefied pulp.
  2. A typical pod contains 20 to 50 beans and about 400 dried beans are required to make one pound (880 per kilogram) of chocolate. Cocoa pods weigh an average of 400 g (14 oz) and each one yields 35 to 40 g (1.2 to 1.4 oz) dried beans; this yield is 40–44% of the total weight in the pod. One person can separate the beans from about 2000 pods per day.
  3. The wet beans are then transported to a facility so they can be fermented and dried. They are fermented for four to seven days and must be mixed every two days. They are dried for five to 14 days, depending on the climate conditions. The fermented beans are dried by spreading them out over a large surface and constantly raking them. In large plantations, this is done on huge trays under the sun or by using artificial heat. Small plantations may dry their harvest on little trays or on cowhides. Finally, the beans are trodden and shuffled about (often using bare human feet) and sometimes, during this process, red clay mixed with water is sprinkled over the beans to obtain a finer color, polish, and protection against molds during shipment to factories in the United States, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and other countries. Drying in the sun is preferable to drying by artificial means, as no extraneous flavours such as smoke or oil are introduced which might otherwise taint the flavour.
  4. The beans should be dry for shipment (usually by sea). Traditionally exported in jute bags, over the last decade, beans are increasingly shipped in “mega-bulk” parcels of several thousand tonnes at a time on ships, or in smaller lots around 25 tonnes in 20-ft containers. Shipping in bulk significantly reduces handling costs; shipment in bags, however, either in a ship’s hold or in containers, is still common.

Who is Gary A. Klein?

Insights are unexpected shifts in the way we understand how something works, and how to make it work better. Gary’s talk examines two mysteries. First, where do insights come from? This talk presents a new account of the nature of insights. Second, how can we trigger more insights? Gary describes a strategy for adopting an insight mindset.

Gary Klein, Ph.D., is known for the cognitive models, such as the Recognition-Primed Decision (RPD) model, the Data/Frame model of sensemaking, the Management By Discovery model of planning in complex settings, and the Triple Path model of insight, the methods he developed, including techniques for Cognitive Task Analysis, the PreMortem method of risk assessment, and the ShadowBox training approach, and the movement he helped to found in 1989 — Naturalistic Decision Making. The company he started in 1978, Klein Associates, grew to 37 employees by the time he sold it in 2005. He formed his new company, ShadowBox LLC, in 2014 and is the author of five books. Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n5OO9L67jL4

Who is Daniel Kahneman?

Daniel Kahneman, the recipient of the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences for his seminal work in psychology that challenged the rational model of judgment and decision making, is one of our most important thinkers. His ideas have had a profound and widely regarded impact on many fields—including economics, medicine, and politics—but until now, he has never brought together his many years of research and thinking in one book.

In the highly anticipated Thinking, Fast and Slow, Kahneman takes us on a groundbreaking tour of the mind and explains the two systems that drive the way we think. System 1 is fast, intuitive, and emotional; System 2 is slower, more deliberative, and more logical. Kahneman exposes the extraordinary capabilities—and also the faults and biases—of fast thinking, and reveals the pervasive influence of intuitive impressions on our thoughts and behavior. The impact of loss aversion and overconfidence on corporate strategies, the difficulties of predicting what will make us happy in the future, the challenges of properly framing risks at work and at home, the profound effect of cognitive biases on everything from playing the stock market to planning the next vacation—each of these can be understood only by knowing how the two systems work together to shape our judgments and decisions.

Engaging the reader in a lively conversation about how we think, Kahneman reveals where we can and cannot trust our intuitions and how we can tap into the benefits of slow thinking. He offers practical and enlightening insights into how choices are made in both our business and our personal lives—and how we can use different techniques to guard against the mental glitches that often get us into trouble. Thinking, Fast and Slow will transform the way you think about thinking.
Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CjVQJdIrDJ0

How Many Types of Plastics Exist and Why?

Plastics are one of humanities most critical inventions, and one of its most dangerous and fierce threats to public and health and wildlife. Critical for transportation, medicine, and food safety its overuse has beared its very negative aspect. One that is specially harsh on Oceans, that now continuously move tons of waste plastics and with it millions of animals die because these things are outside their natural habitat and have not evolved to suvive them.

Plastics are classified according to its layers of plastic and special properties according to market demand.

  1. Polyethylene Terephthalate: Also called PET, it is the common plastic used for household activities. It is the common plastic to be recycled in most countries.
  2. High-Density Polyethylene ( HDPE) is a plastic known to not transmit any chemicals in the food it contains. It is recommended not to use any container of this type of plastic that originally did not contain food to store food.
  3. Polyvinyl Chloride: Also named PVC is the plastic used for tubes and pipes. It can be very harmful if ingested so it is preferable to avoid contact with food.
  4. Low-Density Polyethylene: Is a plastic sometimes recycled. Some of its characteristics are the durability and flexibility. Plastic grocery bags are made from this type of plastic.
  5. Polypropylene: PP is a strong and durable plastic resistant to high temperatures. Plastic bottle caps, lunch boxes and yogurt pots are made from this type of plastic.
  6. Polystyrene: A common but difficult to recycle plastics. Plastic cups and food boxes are made from this type of plastic.
  7. Code 7: Polycarbonate and polylactide are included in this category because of the difficulty in recycling them. Baby bottles, CD´s and medical containers are made of this Code 7 plastics.

Here is a video of plastics, plastic waste, water and plastic.

The great pacific garbage patch

What Is Dejavu?

” Déjà vu from French, literally “already seen”, is the phenomenon of having the feeling that the situation currently being experienced has already been experienced in the past. Déjà vu is a feeling of familiarity, and déjà vécu (the feeling of having “already lived through” something) is a feeling of recollection. Scientific approaches reject the explanation of déjà vu as “precognition” or “prophecy”, but rather explain it as an anomaly of memory, which creates a distinct impression that an experience is “being recalled”. This explanation is supported by the fact that the sense of “recollection” at the time is strong in most cases, but the circumstances of the “previous” experience (when, where, and how the earlier experience occurred) are uncertain or believed to be impossible. Two types of déjà vu are suggested to exist: the pathological type of déjà vu usually associated with epilepsy and the non-pathological which is a characteristic of healthy people and psychological phenomena.

A 2004 review claimed that approximately two-thirds of the population have had déjà vu experiences. Other studies confirm that déjà vu is a common experience in healthy individuals, with between 31% and 96% of individuals reporting it. Déjà vu experiences that are unusually prolonged or frequent, or in association with other symptoms such as hallucinations, may be an indicator of neurological or psychiatric illness.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D%C3%A9j%C3%A0_vu

 

Why Cancer Is SO Difficult to Cure? by Kyuson Yun

In the first place to understand its difficulty, we need to know exactly what the word cancer means and all the implications it has.

” Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Not all tumors are cancerous; benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body. Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, and a change in bowel movements. While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may have other causes. Over 100 types of cancers affect humans.

Tobacco use is the cause of about 22% of cancer deaths. Another 10% are due to obesity, poor diet, lack of physical activity, and excessive drinking of alcohol. Other factors include certain infections, exposure to ionizing radiation and environmental pollutants. In the developing world, nearly 20% of cancers are due to infections such as hepatitis B, hepatitis Cand human papillomavirus infection. These factors act, at least partly, by changing the genes of a cell. Typically many genetic changes are required before cancer develops. Approximately 5–10% of cancers are due to inherited genetic defects from a person’s parents. Cancer can be detected by certain signs and symptoms or screening tests. It is then typically further investigated by medical imaging and confirmed by biopsy.

Many cancers can be prevented by not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, not drinking too much alcohol, eating plenty of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains, vaccination against certain infectious diseases, not eating too much processed and red meat, and avoiding too much sunlight exposure. Early detection through screening is useful for cervical and colorectal cancer. The benefits of screening in breast cancer are controversial. Cancer is often treated with some combination of radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Pain and symptom management are an important part of care. Palliative care is particularly important in people with advanced disease. The chance of survival depends on the type of cancer and extent of disease at the start of treatment. In children under 15 at diagnosis, the five-year survival rate in the developed world is on average 80%. For cancer in the United States, the average five-year survival rate is 66%”. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cancer

In the words of Kyuson Yun learn about the difficulties involved in the cure of cancer.

How Does The Heart Work?

” The heart is a muscular organ in humans and other animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. Blood provides the body with oxygen and nutrients, as well as assists in the removal of metabolic wastes. In humans, the heart is located between the lungs, in the middle compartment of the chest.

In humans, other mammals, and birds, the heart is divided into four chambers: upper left and right atria; and lower left and right ventricles. Commonly the right atrium and ventricle are referred together as the right heart and their left counterparts as the left heart. Fish, in contrast, have two chambers, an atrium, and a ventricle, while reptiles have three chambers. In a healthy heart, blood flows one way through the heart due to heart valves, which prevent backflow. The heart is enclosed in a protective sac, the pericardium, which also contains a small amount of fluid. The wall of the heart is made up of three layers: epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium.

The heart pumps blood with a rhythm determined by a group of pacemaking cells in the sinoatrial node. These generate a current that causes contraction of the heart, traveling through the atrioventricular node and along the conduction system of the heart. The heart receives blood low in oxygen from the systemic circulation, which enters the right atrium from the superior and inferior venae cavae and passes to the right ventricle. From here it is pumped into the pulmonary circulation, through the lungs where it receives oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide. Oxygenated blood then returns to the left atrium, passes through the left ventricle and is pumped out through the aorta to the systemic circulation−where the oxygen is used and metabolized to carbon dioxide. The heart beats at resting rates close to 72 beats per minute. Exercise temporarily increases the rate, but lowers resting heart rate in the long term, and is good for heart health.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart

 

How is Palm Oil made?

Palm oil is extracted from the mesocarp of the the reddish pulp of the fruit of oil palms. These palm oils grow in Asia, Africa, and South America. Around the equator, at least 17 million hectares of this crop has been established in 2015.

” Palm oil (also known as dendê oil , from Portuguese [ˈdɛnde]) is an edible vegetable oil derived from the mesocarp (reddish pulp) of the fruit of the oil palms, primarily the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, and to a lesser extent from the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera and the marina palm Attalea maripa.

Palm oil is naturally reddish in color because of a high beta-carotene content. It is not to be confused with palm kernel oil derived from the kernel of the same fruit, or coconut oil derived from the kernel of the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera). The differences are in color (raw palm kernel oil lacks carotenoids and is not red), and in saturated fat content: palm mesocarp oil is 49% saturated, while palm kernel oil and coconut oil are 81% and 86% saturated fats, respectively. However, crude red palm oil that has been refined, bleached and deodorized, a common commodity called RBD palm oil, does not contain carotenoids.

Along with coconut oil, palm oil is one of the few highly saturated vegetable fats and is semisolid at room temperature. Palm oil is a common cooking ingredient in the tropical belt of Africa, Southeast Asia and parts of Brazil. Its use in the commercial food industry in other parts of the world is widespread because of its lower cost and the high oxidative stability (saturation) of the refined product when used for frying. One source reported that humans consumed an average 17 pounds (7.7 kg) of palm oil per person in 2015.

The use of palm oil in food products has attracted the concern of environmental activist groups; the high oil yield of the trees has encouraged wider cultivation, leading to the clearing of forests in parts of Indonesia and Malaysia to make space for oil-palm monoculture. This has resulted in significant acreage losses of the natural habitat of the two surviving species of orangutan. One species, in particular, the Sumatran orangutan, has been listed as critically endangered. In 2004, an industry group called the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil was formed to work with the palm oil industry to address these concerns. Additionally, in 1992, in response to concerns about deforestation, the Government of Malaysia pledged to limit the expansion of palm oil plantations by retaining a minimum of half the nation’s land as forest cover. In March 2017, a documentary made by DW Germany revealed that palm oil is also used to make milk replacers/milk substitutes that are now used to make milk to feed calves in dairies in the German Alps. These milk substitutes contain 30% milk powder and a remainder of raw protein which is in turn made of skimmed milk powder, whey powder and vegetable fats, mostly coconut oil and palm oil.”  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palm_oil

What is Agroecology?

” Agroecology is the study of ecological processes applied to agricultural production systems. The prefix agro- refers to agriculture. Bringing ecological principles to bear in agroecosystems can suggest novel management approaches that would not otherwise be considered. The term is often used imprecisely and may refer to “a science, a movement, [or] a practice”. Agroecologists study a variety of agroecosystems, and the field of agroecology is not associated with any one particular method of farming, whether it be organic, integrated, or conventional; intensive or extensive, although it has much more in common with some of the before mentioned farming systems.

Agroecologists do not unanimously oppose technology or inputs in agriculture but instead assess how, when, and if technology can be used in conjunction with natural, social and human assets. Agroecology proposes a context- or site-specific manner of studying agroecosystems, and as such, it recognizes that there is no universal formula or recipe for the success and maximum well-being of an agroecosystem. Thus, agroecology is not defined by certain management practices, such as the use of natural enemies in place of insecticides, or polyculture in place of monoculture.

Instead, agroecologists may study questions related to the four system properties of agroecosystems: productivity, stability, sustainability, and equitability. As opposed to disciplines that are concerned with only one or some of these properties, agroecologists see all four properties as interconnected and integral to the success of an agroecosystem. Recognizing that these properties are found on varying spatial scales, agroecologists do not limit themselves to the study of agroecosystems at any one scale: gene-organism-population-community-ecosystem-landscape-biome, field-farm-community-region-state-country-continent-global.

Agroecologists study these four properties through an interdisciplinary lens, using natural sciences to understand elements of agroecosystems such as soil properties and plant-insect interactions, as well as using social sciences to understand the effects of farming practices on rural communities, economic constraints to developing new production methods, or cultural factors determining farming practices.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agroecology

 

What is Permaculture?

” Permaculture is a system of agricultural and social design principles centered around simulating or directly utilizing the patterns and features observed in natural ecosystems. The term was developed and coined by David Holmgren, then a graduate student, and his professor, Bill Mollison, in 1978. The word permaculture originally referred to “permanent agriculture”,  but was expanded to stand also for “permanent culture”, as it was understood that social aspects were integral to a truly sustainable system as inspired by Masanobu Fukuoka’s natural farming philosophy.

It has many branches that include, but are not limited to, ecological design, ecological engineering, environmental design, construction. Permaculture also includes integrated water resources management that develops sustainable architecture, and regenerative and self-maintained habitat and agricultural systems modeled from natural ecosystems.

Mollison has said: “Permaculture is a philosophy of working with, rather than against nature; of protracted and thoughtful observation rather than protracted and thoughtless labor; and of looking at plants and animals in all their functions, rather than treating any area as a single product system. ” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permaculture

What is Crossfit?

” CrossFit is a branded fitness regimen created by Greg Glassman and is a registered trademark of CrossFit, Inc. which was founded by Greg Glassman and Lauren Jenai in 2000. Promoted as both a physical exercise philosophy and also as a competitive fitness sport, CrossFit workouts incorporate elements from high-intensity interval training, Olympic weightlifting, plyometrics, powerlifting, gymnastics, girevoy sport, calisthenics, strongman, and other exercises. It is practiced by members of over 13,000 affiliated gyms, roughly half of which are located in the United States, and by individuals who complete daily workouts (otherwise known as “WODs” or “workouts of the day”).

CrossFit is a strength and conditioning program consisting mainly of a mix of aerobic exercise, calisthenics (body weight exercises), and Olympic weightlifting. CrossFit, Inc. describes its strength and conditioning program as “constantly varied functional movements executed at high intensity across broad time and modal domains,” with the stated goal of improving fitness, which it defines as “work capacity across broad time and modal domains.” Hour-long classes at affiliated gyms, or “boxes”, typically include a warm-up, a skill development segment, the high-intensity “workout of the day” (or WOD), and a period of individual or group stretching. Some gyms also often have a strength focused movement prior to the WOD. Performance on each WOD is often scored and/or ranked to encourage competition and to track individual progress. Some affiliates offer additional classes, such as Olympic weightlifting, which are not centered around a WOD.

The wall walk exercise uses a wall to practice handstands, usually used as skill work to strengthen the shoulder and core in order to improve overhead movements and handstand push-ups.

CrossFit gyms use equipment from multiple disciplines, including barbells, dumbbells, gymnastics rings, pull-up bars, jump ropes, kettlebells, medicine balls, plyo boxes, resistance bands, rowing machines, and various mats. CrossFit is focused on “constantly varied, high-intensity, functional movement,” drawing on categories and exercises such as these: calisthenics, Olympic-style weightlifting, powerlifting, Strongman-type events, plyometrics, body weight exercises, indoor rowing, aerobic exercise, running, and swimming.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CrossFit

What is The Dragon Fruit?

” A pitaya /pɪˈt.ə/ or pitahaya /ˌpɪtəˈh.ə/ is the fruit of several cactus species indigenous to the Americas. Pitaya usually refers to the fruit of the genus Stenocereus, while pitahaya or dragon fruit refers to the fruit of the genus Hylocereus. These fruits are commonly known in English as “dragon fruit”, reflecting its vernacular Asian names. The names pitahaya and pitaya derives from Mexico, and pitaya Roja in Central America and northern South America, possibly relating to pitahaya for names of tall cacti species with flowering fruit. In China, the fruit is referred to as huǒ lóng guǒ.

Dragon fruit Hylocereus

 Ripe dragon fruit, Vietnam

Sweet pitahayas come in three types, all with leathery, slightly leafy skin:

  • Hylocereus undatus (Pitaya Blanca or white-fleshed pitahaya) has pink-skinned fruit with white flesh. This is the most commonly seen “dragon fruit”.
  • Hylocereus costaricensis (Pitaya Roja or red-fleshed pitahaya, also known as Hylocereus polyrhizus) has red-skinned fruit with red flesh.
  • Hylocereus megalanthus (Pitaya Amarilla or yellow pitahaya, also known as Selenicereus megalanthus) has yellow-skinned fruit with white flesh.

Early imports from Colombia to Australia were designated Hylocereus ocampensis (supposedly red fruit) and Cereus triangularis (supposedly yellow fruit). It is not quite certain to which species these taxa refer, though the former is probably the red pitaya.

The fruit normally weighs from 150 to 600 grams (5.3 to 21.2 oz); some may reach 1 kilogram (2.2 lb).” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pitaya

 

What is The Agricultural Revolution?

“Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making possible an increasingly larger population. These settled communities permitted humans to observe and experiment with plants to learn how they grew and developed.This new knowledge led to the domestication of plants.

Archaeological data indicates that the domestication of various types of plants and animals happened in separate locations worldwide, starting in the geological epoch of the Holocene around 12,500 years ago. It was the world’s first historically verifiable revolution in agriculture. The Neolithic Revolution greatly narrowed the diversity of foods available, with a switch to agriculture which led to a downturn in human nutrition.

The Neolithic Revolution involved far more than the adoption of a limited set of food-producing techniques. During the next millennia, it would transform the small and mobile groups of hunter-gatherers that had hitherto dominated human pre-history into sedentary (non-nomadic) societies based in built-up villages and towns. These societies radically modified their natural environment by means of specialized food-crop cultivation, with activities such as irrigation and deforestation which allowed the production of surplus food.

These developments provided the basis for densely populated settlements, specialization and division of labor, more trade, the development of non-portable art and architecture, centralized administrations and political structures, hierarchical ideologies, depersonalized systems of knowledge (e.g. writing), and property ownership. The earliest known civilization developed in Sumer in southern Mesopotamia (c. 5,500 BP); its emergence also heralded the beginning of the Bronze Age.”

 

How are Mushrooms Produced?

Mushrooms are not plants, and require different conditions for optimal growth. Plants develop through photosynthesis, a process that converts atmospheric carbon dioxide into carbohydrates, especially cellulose. While sunlight provides an energy source for plants, mushrooms derive all of their energy and growth materials from their growth medium, through biochemical decomposition processes. This does not mean that light is an irrelevant requirement, since some fungi use light as a signal for fruiting.[1][2] However, all the materials for growth must already be present in the growth medium. Mushrooms grow well at relative humidity levels of around 95–100%, and substrate moisture levels of 50 to 75%.[1]

Instead of seeds, mushrooms reproduce asexually through spores. Spores can be contaminated with airborne microorganisms, which will interfere with mushroom growth and prevent a healthy crop.

Mycelium, or actively growing mushroom culture, is placed on a substrate—usually sterilized grains such as rye or millet—and induced to grow into those grains. This is called inoculation. Inoculated grains are referred to as spawn. Spores are another inoculation option, but are less developed than established mycelium. Since they are also contaminated easily, they are only manipulated in laboratory conditions with a laminar flow cabinet. SRC – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fungiculture

Mushroom production synthesized in 6 steps:

  1. Making Mushroom Compost

  2. Finishing the Compost

  3. Spawning

  4. Casing

  5. Pinning

  6. Cropping

For additional information on mushroom crops you can visit the following page:

https://www.mushroominfo.com/growing-mushrooms/six-steps-to-mushroom-farming/

Michael Jackson´s Life

” Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009) was an American singer, songwriter, and dancer. Dubbed the “King of Pop”, he was one of the most popular entertainers in the world and was the best-selling music artist at the time of his death. Jackson’s contributions to music, dance, and fashion along with his publicized personal life made him a global figure in popular culture for over four decades.

The eighth child of the Jackson family, Michael made his professional debut in 1964 with his elder brothers Jackie, Tito, Jermaine, and Marlon as a member of the Jackson 5. He began his solo career in 1971 while at Motown Records. In the early 1980s, Jackson became a dominant figure in popular music. His music videos, including those of “Beat It”, “Billie Jean”, and “Thriller” from his 1982 album Thriller, are credited with breaking racial barriers and transforming the medium into an art form and promotional tool. The popularity of these videos helped bring the television channel MTV to fame. Jackson’s 1987 album Bad spawned the U.S. Billboard Hot 100 number-one singles “I Just Can’t Stop Loving You”, “Bad”, “The Way You Make Me Feel”, “Man in the Mirror”, and “Dirty Diana”, becoming the first album to have five number-one singles in the nation. He continued to innovate with videos such as “Black or White” and “Scream” throughout the 1990s and forged a reputation as a touring solo artist. Through stage and video performances, Jackson popularized a number of complicated dance techniques, such as the robot and the moonwalk, to which he gave the name. His distinctive sound and style have influenced numerous artists of various music genres.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Jackson

What Defines You? By Lizzie Velasquez TED talk

Lizzie Velasquez is a brilliant and fantastic 25-year-old lady who was born with a strange syndrome. In her special condition, she can not gain weight at all. During her life, many obstacles have overcome, but she has used them as a ladder to go after her dreams. As far as she´s gone she has achieved some of them and is after more.

Her speech is a motivation to all of those people that see life like a big mountain that they are not able to manage. Watch her incredible story and how she has turned negative into positive even though people attacked her for doing nothing them.

What Is Carbon Footprint?

Carbon footprint term appeared almost around 1960 and 1970´s, it means the number of gases that cause climate change, exactly the ones that cause our temperatures to rise. With time the instrument was modeled and it became well known. There are many other footprints too, those include water, human, organization, and others.

On our days it has become an instrument that many businesses use to learn of their emissions, how to reduce them and add an extra to the products and

services they produce. Carbon footprint consists of making an inventory of all the things used during a process. According to standards the limits of the study are:

Bussiness to business: This means from cradle to gate or from where the production starts. For example, coffee since it is cultivated in the estate, you count on all the supplies required on this till the coffee is sold to another business. You do not count the emissions from the business on.

Business to the customer: It takes reference from the cultivation process or initial stage of creating the product or in case it is an organization you gather all the activities it makes, depending on the objectives the business has. The inventory, in this case, is made until the consumer uses and disposes of the product, as you see much longer and complicated.

The basic formula to calculate is: Data activity x emission factor

Data activity: Refers to all the things consumed and taken into account during the process to consider in the calculation. (kg fertilizers/year).

Emission factor: This means the amount of CO2 eq/kg fertilizer)

There are many standards or guides you can use to calculate your carbon footprint. Included in the list are:

  • GHG Protocol
  • IPCC (has a whole book in chapters available on the internet)
  • Ecoinvent provides an emission factors database.

Carbon footprint is an extense an interesting theme, in case you are interested you can learn more on the links below:

  • Cool Farm Tool an online calculator for carbon footprint on products score on biodiversity and water in the farm. LINK: https://coolfarmtool.org/coolfarmtool/
  • IPCC has a lot of information on the theme of how this is working out and other themes related to the carbon footprint. https://www.ipcc.ch/

Is Glass a Liquid?

The glass is a very common material in our homes. Little know the origin of this transparent and fragile material. Glass comes from melted sand that is shaped into the diverse ways we see it. Glass is found in construction materials to eating implements.

“Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics. The most familiar, and historically the oldest, types of glass are “silicate glasses” based on the chemical compound silica (silicon dioxide, or quartz), the primary constituent of sand. The term glass, in popular usage, is often used to refer only to this type of material, which is familiar from use as window glass and in glass bottles. Of the many silica-based glasses that exist, ordinary glazing and container glass is formed from a specific type called soda-lime glass, composed of approximately 75% silicon dioxide(SiO2), sodium oxide (Na2O) from sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), calcium oxide, also called lime (CaO), and several minor additives.

Many applications of silicate glasses derive from their optical transparency, giving rise to their primary use as window panes. Glass will transmit, reflect and refract light; these qualities can be enhanced by cutting and polishing to make optical lenses, prisms, fine glassware, and optical fibers for high-speed data transmission by light. Glass can be coloured by adding metallic salts, and can also be painted and printed with vitreous enamels. These qualities have led to the extensive use of glass in the manufacture of art objects and in particular, stained glass windows. Although brittle, silicate glass is extremely durable, and many examples of glass fragments exist from early glass-making cultures. Because glass can be formed or molded into any shape, it has been traditionally used for vessels: bowls, vases, bottles, jars and drinking glasses. In its most solid forms, it has also been used for paperweights, marbles, and beads. When extruded as glass fiber and matted as glass wool in a way to trap air, it becomes a thermally insulating material, and when these glass fibers are embedded into an organic polymer plastic, they are a key structural reinforcement part of the composite material fiberglass. Some objects historically were so commonly made of silicate glass that they are simply called by the name of the material, such as drinking glasses and reading glasses.”

What is Schizoaffective disorder?

Schizoaffective disorder is a combination of schizophrenia combined with mood disorder symptoms including depression. The symptoms vary from person to person so it is very difficult to characterize it. People affected by this disorder can improve quality life having daily treatment.

“Schizoaffective disorder (SZA, SZD or SAD) is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal thought processes and deregulated emotions. The diagnosis is made when the person has features of both schizophrenia and a mood disorder—either bipolar disorder or depression—but does not strictly meet diagnostic criteria for either alone. The bipolar type is distinguished by symptoms of mania, hypomania, or mixed episode; the depressive type by symptoms of depression only. Common Symptoms of the disorder include hallucinations, paranoid delusions, and disorganized speech and thinking. The onset of symptoms usually begins in young adulthood, currently with an uncertain lifetime prevalence because the disorder was redefined, but DSM-IV prevalence estimates were less than 1 percent of the population, in the range of 0.5 to 0.8 percent. Diagnosis is based on observed behavior and the person’s reported experiences.

Genetics, neurobiology, early and current environment, behavioral, social, and experiential components appear to be important contributory factors; some recreational and prescription drugs may cause or worsen symptoms. No single isolated organic cause has been found, but extensive evidence exists for abnormalities in the metabolism of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), dopamine, and glutamic acid in people with schizophrenia, psychotic mood disorders, and schizoaffective disorder. People with schizoaffective disorder are likely to have co-occurring conditions, including anxiety disorders and substance use disorder. Social problems such as long-term unemployment, poverty, and homelessness are common. The average life expectancy of people with the disorder is shorter than those without it, due to increased physical health problems from an absence of health-promoting behaviors including a sedentary lifestyle, and a higher suicide rate.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schizoaffective_disorder

What is Delusional disorder?

Delusional disorder is a mental illness in which patients have delusions for different periods of time. Delusions are bizarre and they cannot be diagnosed easily until someone touches there delusional themes. Delusions are varied and patients are classified according to them.

“Delusional disorder is a mental illness in which the patient presents with delusions, but with no accompanying prominent hallucinations, thought disorder, mood disorder, or significant flattening of effect. Delusions are a specific symptom of psychosis. Delusions can be “bizarre” or “non-bizarre” in content; non-bizarre delusions are fixed false beliefs that involve situations that could potentially occur in real life, such as being followed or poisoned. Apart from their delusions, people with the delusional disorder may continue to socialize and function in a normal manner and their behavior does not necessarily generally seem odd. However, the preoccupation with delusional ideas can be disruptive to their overall lives.

For the diagnosis to be made, auditory and visual hallucinations cannot be prominent, though olfactory or tactile hallucinations related to the content of the delusion may be present. The delusions cannot be due to the effects of a drug, medication, or general medical condition, and delusional disorder cannot be diagnosed in an individual previously properly diagnosed with schizophrenia. A person with delusional disorder may be high functioning in daily life. Recent and comprehensive meta-analysis of scientific studies points to an association between a deterioration in aspects of IQin psychotic patients, in particular, perceptual reasoning.

According to German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin, patients with delusional disorder remain coherent, sensible and reasonable. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) defines six subtypes of the disorder characterized as erotomanic (believes that someone is in love with them), grandiose (believes that they are the greatest, strongest, fastest, richest, or most intelligent person ever), jealous (believes that the love partner is cheating on them), persecutory (delusions that the person or someone to whom the person is close is being malevolently treated in some way), somatic (believes that they have a disease or medical condition), and mixed, i.e., having features of more than one subtype. Delusions also occur as symptoms of many other mental disorders, especially the other psychotic disorders.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delusional_disorder

 

 

How Does Power Get to Your House?

We are so used to just pressing the switch to “on” and getting the light to fill our room that we take it for granted, but, have you ever asked yourself how does electricity travel? How do billions of charged particles move charges from where ever it is that they are generated and travel all these long distances all the way down to your particular light switch? There is a lot more to know about how electricity is made (thermal, Aeolic, water, photons, chemical reactions, etc). Electricity travels long distances through optimal electric conductors ( like copper cables) until they get to their destiny. This often involves a complex series of cables and powerhouses called “The Electric Grid”.

“Electricity for powering our homes is made in power stations. A power station contains large machines called turbines, which are turned very quickly. Power stations need large amounts of energy to turn the turbines. Most use heat energy produced from burning coal”.

“In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts motive power into electrical power for use in an external circuit. Sources of mechanical energy include steam turbines, gas turbines, water turbines, internal combustion engines and even hand cranks. The first electromagnetic generator, the Faraday disk, was built in 1831 by British scientist Michael Faraday. Generators provide nearly all of the power for electric power grids.

The reverse conversion of electrical energy into mechanical energy is done by an electric motor, and motors and generators have many similarities. Many motors can be mechanically driven to generate electricity and frequently make acceptable manual generators.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_generator

House wiring

“Power points (receptacles, plugs, wall sockets) need to be installed throughout the house in locations where power will be required. In many areas, the installation must be done in compliance with standards and by a licensed or qualified electrician. Power points are typically located where there will be an appliance installed such as telephone, computers, television, home theater, security system, CCTV system.

The number of light. fitting does depend on the type of light fitting and the lighting requirements in each room. The incandescent bulb made household lighting practical, but modern homes use a wide variety of light sources to provide desired light levels with higher energy efficiency than incandescent lamps. A lighting designer can provide specific recommendations for lighting in a home. A layout of lighting in the home must consider control of lighting since this affects the wiring. For example, multiway switching is useful for corridors and stairwells so that a light can be turned on and off from two locations. Outdoor yard lighting and lighting for outbuildings such as garages may use switches inside the home.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Home_wiring

What is AC Circuits or Alternating current?

AC Circuits (or Alternating Currents) they change the voltage, which helps transmit electricity over long distances, but there’s so much more to the physics of AC circuitry.

“Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction. Alternating current is the form in which electric power is delivered to businesses and residences, and it is the form of electrical energy that consumers typically use when they plug kitchen appliances, televisions and electric lamps into a wall socket. A common source of DC power is a battery cell in a flashlight. The abbreviations AC and DC are often used to mean simply alternating and direct, as when they modify current or voltage.

The usual waveform of alternating current in most electric power circuits is a sine wave. In certain applications, different waveforms are used, such as triangular or square waves. Audio and radio signals carried on electrical wires are also examples of alternating current. These types of alternating current carry information encoded (or modulated) onto the AC signal, such as sound (audio) or images (video). These currents typically alternate at higher frequencies than those used in power transmission.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternating_current

 

Could The Sugar Coating on Cells Mean the Penicillin of Cance?

Sugar is certainly important in humans, at a chemical level, at a biological level, at a psychological level and even at a social level. Now, this fascinating TED talk is giving us some hope on what could mean a new and very effective treatment for cancer. View the video and read on for some fascinating facts about sugar and humans.
Your cells are coated with sugars that store information and speak a secret language. What are they trying to tell us? Your blood type, for one — and, potentially, that you have cancer. Chemical biologist Carolyn Bertozzi researchers how sugars on cancerous cells interact with (and sometimes trick) your immune system. Learn more about how your body detects cancer and how the latest cancer-fighting medicines could help your immune system beat the disease.

“In most parts of the world, sugar is an important part of the human diet, making food more palatable and providing food energy. After cereals and vegetable oils,  the sugar derived from sugarcane and beet provided more kilocalories per capita per day on average than other food groups.[59] According to the FAO, an average of 24 kilograms (53 lb) of sugar, equivalent to over 260 food calories per day, was consumed annually per person of all ages in the world in 1999. Even with rising human populations, sugar consumption is expected to increase to 25.1 kilograms (55 lb) per person per year by 2015.[60]

Data collected in multiple U.S. surveys between 1999 and 2008 show that the intake of added sugars has declined by 24 percent with declines occurring in all age, ethnic and income groups.

The per capita consumption of refined sugar in the United States has varied between 27 and 46 kilograms (60 and 101 lb) in the last 40 years. In 2008, American per capita total consumption of sugar and sweeteners, exclusive of artificial sweeteners, equaled 61.9 kg (136 lb) per year. This consisted of 29.65 kg (65.4 lb) pounds of refined sugar and 31 kg (68.3 lb) pounds of corn-derived sweeteners per person.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sugar

 

How To Improve on Focus and Concentration?

Have you ever noticed how easy it is to get distracted while studying – even when you know you really don’t have time for Facebook, Snapchat, Cookie Clicker, or whatever else is calling you?
It’s been said that the greatest power of the human mind is its ability to focus on one thing for an extended period of time. If you’ve ever held a magnifying glass in the sun, you know how scattered sunlight can be focused to start a fire. Imagine if you could concentrate your brain power into one bright beam and focus it like a laser on whatever you wish to accomplish. But most of us struggle to concentrate. And when you can’t concentrate, everything you do is harder and takes longer than you’d like. You may be looking to improve your concentration to perform better at work, to ace your exams, to increase reading comprehension, or simply to make everyday life easier. If you can’t focus, you may think that’s just the way your brain works and that there’s not much you can do about it. But anyone can develop their ability to concentrate. There are skills you can learn and things you can do to allow your brain to focus better.” https://bebrainfit.com/improve-concentration-focus/

What happens in your brain when you pay attention?

Attention isn’t just about what we focus on — it’s also about what our brains filter out. By investigating patterns in the brain as people try to focus, computational neuroscientist Mehdi Ordikhani-Seyedlar hopes to build computer models that can be used to treat ADHD and help those who have lost the ability to communicate.

“A new study by MIT neuroscientists reveals how the brain achieves this type of focused attention on faces or other objects: A part of the prefrontal cortex known as the inferior frontal junction (IFJ) controls visual processing areas that are tuned to recognize a specific category of objects, the researchers report in the April 10 online edition of Science.

Scientists know much less about this type of attention, known as object-based attention, than spatial attention, which involves focusing on what’s happening in a particular location. However, the new findings suggest that these two types of attention have similar mechanisms involving related brain regions, says Robert Desimone, the Doris and Don Berkey Professor of Neuroscience, director of MIT’s McGovern Institute for Brain Research, and senior author of the paper.

“The interactions are surprisingly similar to those seen in spatial attention,” Desimone says. “It seems like it’s a parallel process involving different areas.”

In both cases, the prefrontal cortex — the control center for most cognitive functions — appears to take charge of the brain’s attention and control relevant parts of the visual cortex, which receives sensory input. For spatial attention, that involves regions of the visual cortex that map to a particular area within the visual field.

In the new study, the researchers found that IFJ coordinates with a brain region that processes faces, known as the fusiform face area (FFA), and a region that interprets information about places, known as the parahippocampal place area (PPA). The FFA and PPA were first identified in the human cortex by Nancy Kanwisher, the Walter A. Rosenblith Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience at MIT. ” https://news.mit.edu/2014/how-brain-pays-attention