Cultural anthropology is a branch of anthropology and is focused on cultural variation. The methodology used in this science is rich, based on participant observation. The anthropologist has to be a lot of time on the site of study because of the need of doing surveys and interviews.
” Since humans acquire culture through the learning processes of enculturation and socialization, people living in different places or different circumstances develop different cultures. Anthropologists have also pointed out that through culture people can adapt to their environment in non-genetic ways, so people living in different environments will often have different cultures. Much of anthropological theory has originated in an appreciation of and interest in the tension between the local (particular cultures) and the global (a universal human nature, or the web of connections between people in distinct places/circumstances).
The rise of cultural anthropology took place within the context of the late 19th century when questions regarding which cultures were “primitive” and which were “civilized” occupied the minds of not only Marx and Freud but many others. Colonialism and its processes increasingly brought European thinkers into direct or indirect contact with “primitive others.” The relative status of various humans, some of whom had modern advanced technologies that included engines and telegraphs, while others lacked anything but face-to-face communication techniques and still lived a Paleolithic lifestyle, was of interest to the first generation of cultural anthropologists.” Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_anthropology