What Discoveries Changed History?

Human being along with time has learned a lot of things, discovered his environment and used it in his favor. Among these discoveries that have perdured for a long are finger printings. Crimes could be difficult to solve without a finger print help, the only way to recognize a specific human being. In the next list more of this interesting discovery that has changed our history.

Finger Printing
Fingerprinting has been around for a long time. Ancient Babylonians pressed the tips of their Fingertips into clay to record business transactions. In ancient China and 14th century Persia, thumbprints were found on clay seals or on various official documents. In Persia, one government official Observed that no two fingerprints were exactly alike so it’s probably this guy who should get the credit for it. But you know how it goes… Fingerprints were also Used as a signature around the world for people who didn’t know how to write.
A Scottish doctor by the name of Henry Faulds is also credited as being the Father of fingerprinting. While working in a hospital in Tokyo, Japan, in 1874, Faulds Kept records of fingerprints by using ink. Faulds was also able to lift a fingerprint from a bottle of whiskey and thus received credit for the first identification of a fingerprint.
Today the F.B.I. uses a computerized system to Contain the fingerprints of some 34 million criminals. Fingerprinting has been One of the civilization’s greatest developments, and we now depend on its accuracy to identify criminals, missing persons, and unknown deceased.

Australopithecus
Australopithecus is known as The very first human to exist. It played a significant part in human evolution and can be considered the first human. They were the first hominids to show the presence of a Gene that causes increased length and the ability of neurons in the brain. The skull was actually discovered by a South African who gave it to anatomist Raymond Dart, so he gets the credit for this one. The fossil was Recorded to be around 3.7 million years old. The brains of most species of Australopithecus were roughly 35% of the size of that of a modern human brain. Most of them were short, usually about 4 feet tall. One of the australopith species eventually became the Homo genus in Africa around two million years ago (e. g.  Homo habilis), and eventually modern humans, H. sapiens.

Bacteria
Before the 1860’s the Causes of disease were not well understood. French chemist Louis Pasteur began experimenting with bacteria and discovered that disease came from microorganisms and that Bacteria could be destroyed through heat and disinfectant. For thousands of years prior, countless people used to die from infections. This idea leads doctors to start Washing their hands and sterilizing their instruments, which has saved millions of lives. It seems like something so basic now, but some people still don’t wash their hands! Gross!

Theory of Relativity
Albert Einstein’s theory of special relativity, which he published in 1905, explains the Relationships between speed, time and distance and that the speed of light is the same for all observers. Einstein’s discovery of the relativity of space and time Led to an equally revolutionary insight. Matter and energy are interrelated, even equivalent. The equivalence of matter and energy is summed up in the famous equation: E=mc2. Einstein’s 1905 theory is Referred to as the “special” theory because it is limited to bodies moving in the absence of a gravitational field. This theory has had profound implications for physics and cosmology.

Oxygen
Who actually discovered Oxygen is a bit murky. It was First discovered by Swedish Chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1772. Scheele called the gas “fire air” because it was the only known supporter of combustion, and sent his findings to his publisher in 1775. However, that document was not published until 1777. Joseph Priestly independently discovered oxygen in 1774 and published his findings the same year, three years before Scheele published. Priestly was the First to observe that plants release oxygen into the air – the process known to us as photosynthesis by putting a mouse in a jar of air until it collapsed. He found that A mouse kept with a plant would survive. Antoine Lavoisier, a French chemist, also discovered oxygen in 1775, and was the first to recognize it as an element, and coined the name “oxygen.” He was also able to prove that oxygen supported animal life respiration.

The Copernican System
The father of modern astronomy, Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus was the first modern European scientist to propose that Earth and other planets revolve around the sun. In 1543, he published his theory that the Sun is a motionless body at the center of the universe, with the planets revolving around it. (He was close, he didn’t realize at the time that the sun was the center of the solar system).