The overall Effects of Alcohol

Short-term effects

In low doses, alcohol produces:

  • A relaxing effect
  • Reduced tension
  • Lowered inhibitions
  • Poor concentration
  • Slow reflexes
  • Slow reaction time
  • Reduced coordination
  • Slower brain activity
  • Sensations and perceptions that are less clear
  • In medium doses, alcohol produces:
  • Slurred speech
  • Sleepiness
  • Altered emotions
  • Poor vision
  • Sleepiness and disruption of sleeping patterns
  • Increased urine production
  • More blood flow to skin surface
  • Lower core body temperature

In high doses, alcohol produces:

  • Vomiting
  • Uncontrolled urination
  • Uncontrolled defecation
  • Breathing difficulties
  • Passing out
  • Alcohol poisoning
  • Coma
  • Possible death

Long-term effects of alcohol

  • Disrupts normal brain development;
  • Liver damage and cirrhosis of the liver;
  • Brain cells die, decreasing brain mass;
  • Stomach and intestinal ulcers and destroyed organs;
  • Blood pressure increases, causing heart disease, heart attack, or stroke;
  • Male sperm production decreases;
  • Lower levels of iron and vitamin B, causing anemia;
  • Alcoholism;
  • Death;
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome in unborn children.


Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.[12] The disorder was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence.[1][13] In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions is present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use -