What is Economic History?

Economic history is the study of economic events in the past. A series of different methods are used to analyze these events including statistical and historical methods. Here is an example of an extremely controversial “historical” account on economic events of the recent past:

 

Development of economic history science

” In Germany in the late 19th century, scholars in a number of universities, led by Gustav von Schmoller, developed the historical school of economic history. It ignored quantitative and mathematical approaches. Historical approach dominated German and French scholarship for most of the 20th century. The approach was spread to Great Britain by William Ashley, 1860–1927, and dominated British economic history for much of the 20th century. Britain’s first professor in the subject was George Unwin at the University of Manchester). In France, economic history was heavily influenced by the Annales School from the early 20th century to the present. It exerts a worldwide influence through its Journal Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales.

Treating economic history as a discrete academic discipline has been a contentious issue for many years. Academics at the London School of Economics and the University of Cambridge had numerous disputes over the separation of economics and economic history in the interwar era. Cambridge economists believed that pure economics involved a component of economic history and that the two were inseparably entangled. Those at the LSE believed that economic history warranted its own courses, research agenda, and academic chair separated from mainstream economics.

In the initial period of the subject’s development, the LSE position of separating economic history from economics won out. Many universities in the UK developed independent programmes in economic history rooted in the LSE model. Indeed, the Economic History Society had its inauguration at LSE in 1926 and the University of Cambridge eventually established its own economic history programme. However, the past twenty years have witnessed the widespread closure of these separate programmes in the UK and the integration of the discipline into either history or economics departments. Only the LSE retains a separate economic history department and stand-alone undergraduate and graduate programme in economic history. Cambridge, Glasgow, the LSE, and Oxford together train the vast majority of economic historians coming through the British higher education system today.

United States

Meanwhile, in the US, the field of economic history has in recent decades been largely subsumed into other fields of economics and is seen as a form of applied economics. As a consequence, there are no specialist economic history graduate programs at any universities anywhere in the country. Economic history remains as a special field component of regular economics or history Ph.D. programs in universities including at University of California, Berkeley, Harvard University, Northwestern University and Yale University.” Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_history

What is Anthropology?

Anthropology science studies all themes related to human beings including past and present elements. Since it is so vast it has divided into various branches to specialize in getting more accurate information.

History of origin of the term anthropology

The term anthropology was first used in Renaissance Germany in the work of Magnus Hundt and Otto Casmann.

Anthropology and many other current fields are the intellectual results of the comparative methods developed in the earlier 19th century. Theorists in such diverse fields as anatomy, linguistics, and Ethnology, making feature-by-feature comparisons of their subject matters, were beginning to suspect that similarities between animals, languages, and folkways were the result of processes or laws unknown to them then. For them, the publication of Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was the epiphany of everything they had begun to suspect. Darwin himself arrived at his conclusions through comparison of species he had seen in agronomy and in the wild.

Darwin and Wallace unveiled evolution in the late 1850s. There was an immediate rush to bring it into the social sciences. Paul Broca in Paris was in the process of breaking away from the Société de Biologie to form the first of the explicitly anthropological societies, the Société d’Anthropologie de Paris, meeting for the first time in Paris in 1859. When he read Darwin, he became an immediate convert to Transformisme, as the French called evolutionism. His definition now became “the study of the human group, considered as a whole, in its details, and in relation to the rest of nature”.” Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthropology

Ancient Egypt

“Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. It is one of six historic civilizations to arise independently. Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3150 BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology) with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes (often identified with Narmer). The history of ancient Egypt occurred in a series of stable Kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

Egypt reached the pinnacle of its power in the New Kingdom, during the Ramesside period, where it rivaled the Hittite Empire, Assyrian Empire, and Mitanni Empire, after which it entered a period of slow decline. Egypt was invaded or conquered by a succession of foreign powers, such as the Canaanites/Hyksos, Libyans, the Nubians, the Assyrians, Babylonians, the Achaemenid Persians, and the Macedonians in the Third Intermediate Period and the Late Period of Egypt. In the aftermath of Alexander the Great’s death, one of his generals, Ptolemy Soter, established himself as the new ruler of Egypt. This Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom ruled Egypt until 30 BC, when, under Cleopatra, it fell to the Roman Empire and became a Roman province.

The success of ancient Egyptian civilization came partly from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River valley for agriculture. The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which supported a more dense population, and social development and culture. With resources to spare, the administration sponsored mineral exploitation of the valley and surrounding desert regions, the early development of an independent writing system, the organization of collective construction and agricultural projects, trade with surrounding regions, and a military intended to defeat foreign enemies and assert Egyptian dominance. Motivating and organizing these activities was a bureaucracy of elite scribes, religious leaders, and administrators under the control of a pharaoh, who ensured the cooperation and unity of the Egyptian people in the context of an elaborate system of religious beliefs. ” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Egypt

What Is A Myth?

Myths are traditional stories that come from past generations. They represent the culture and beliefs of many people and are rich and creative. The characters in myths are magical creatures with interesting powers. In this article, we will learn about myths and where they came from.

“A myth is a traditional story consisting of events that are ostensibly historical, though often supernatural, explaining the origins of a cultural practice or natural phenomenon. The word “myth” is derived from the Greek word mythos (μῦθος), which simply means “story”. Mythology can refer either to the study of myths or to a body or collection of myths.[4] Myth can mean ‘sacred story’, ‘traditional narrative’ or ‘tale of the gods’. A myth can also be a story to explain why something exists.

Human cultures’ mythologies usually include a cosmogonical or creation myth, concerning the origins of the world, or how the world came to exist. The active beings in myths are generally gods and goddesses, heroes and heroines, or animals and plants. Most myths are set in a timeless past before recorded time or beginning of the critical history. A myth can be a story involving symbols that are capable of multiple meanings.

A myth is a sacred narrative because it holds religious or spiritual significance for those who tell it. Myths also contribute to and express a culture’s systems of thought and values, such as the myth of gremlins invented by aircraft technicians during World War II to avoid apportioning blame. Myths are often, therefore, stories that are currently understood as being exaggerated or fictitious.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myth

How We Got Here?

In the past the world’s population was probably a thousand people, but now!! We are over 7.5 billion people on this planet. Our world is divided into many types of societies depending on the way of living of these people. We have horticultural societies, pastoral and many more what characterizes each one is all the activities they have. For example, pastoral societies are nomadic, they base their way of living in domesticating animals. What makes societies grow is the appearance of surplus this is extremely important, they start to specialize according to what they grow or produce. Activities start being delegated to others members and societies stratify and grow in number.

What are the Top 10 Most Important Dates in Movie and TV History?

Do you know what are the Top 10 Important Dates in Fiction?

Dates from Movies and TV that have significance to those stories and are exciting for fans to celebrate here in the real world the Top 10 Dates in Movie and TV History.

What date will take the top spot on our list? Will it be Judgement day from Terminator 2, the day HAL goes online in 2001: A Space Odyssey, or the day Doc Brown bumped his head and discovered the Flux Capacitor and Time Travel in Back to the Future?

Check out here the Top 10 Dates in Movie and TV History!

Watch to find out!

00:36 #10. July 4, 1996 from “Independence Day” (1996)
02:01 #9. October 16, 1997 from “Lost in Space” (1965-68)
03:23 #8. January 1, 2000 from “Futurama” (1999-2013)
04:45 #7. September 22, 2004 from “Lost” (2004-10)
05:55 #6. April 5, 2063 from “Star Trek: First Contact” (1996)
07:08 #5. December 21, 2012 from “2012” (2009)
08:24 #4. June 13, 1979 from “Friday the 13th” (1980)
09:44 #3, #2 #1 ????

 

What Are The Deadliest Ship Disasters in History?

The greatest maritime disaster in history happened during World War II when the Wilhelm Gustloff got hit by 3 torpedoes in the Baltic Sea by a submarine of the Soviet Union. This ship filled with refugees, which is often referred to as the German Titanic, sank in less than 45 minutes and had over 9400 fatalities, making it the worst sinking tragedy ever!

In January of 1945, this German ship known as the Nazi Titanic was hit by three torpedoes in the Baltic Sea while participating in the evacuation of civilians, military personnel, and Nazi officials who were surrounded by the Red Army in East Prussia.
The Wilhelm Gustloff was launched in May, 1937 and was supposed to be named after Adolf Hitler but was instead named after Wilhelm Gustloff, a leader of the National Socialist Party in Switzerland who was assassinated in 1936.
The ship was built to be a cruise liner and host concerts, cruises, and other trips for German soldiers, politicians, and their families, and to present “a more acceptable image of the Third Reich.”
In 1939 she started her military career and was in charge of bringing the Condor Legion back from Spain after the victory of the Nationalist Party forces under General Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War. The Condor Legion were German Airforce and Army volunteers that developed methods of terror bombing which were used widely in the Second World War shortly afterwards. They were responsible for the bombing of Guernica, made famous by Picasso’s painting- however I digress…
She served as a hospital ship for about a year until she was turned into barracks for U-boat trainees in the port of Gdynia,(right here). The trainees actually acted as extras in the German remake of the movie Titanic in 1942.
The Wilhelm Gustloff sat on the docks for over 4 years until someone thought of using her as part of Operation Hannibal.
Operation Hannibal was the naval evacuation of German military personnel and refugees from Courland, East Prussia, and Danzig-West Prussia as the Red Army advanced. Here is a map so you have some context.

10,582 people were on a cruise ship that was meant to accommodate only about 1,900. Most of them were refugees and an estimated 5000 of them were children. As it the ship was leaving it was spotted by a Soviet submarine that launched 3 torpedoes hitting it on its side. The ship sunk in less than 45 minutes and the majority of the passengers drowned in the freezing water.
So why do so few people know about the Wilhelm Gustloff? It is possible the Nazi regime actively tried to hide the facts and Germans were hesitant to claim that they had been victims.
The Soviets were also not very keen on bragging about sinking the ship since the captain of the submarine was facing a court martial due to his problems with alcohol and they did not want to consider him a hero.
An estimated 9,400 people were killed in the disaster, making it the largest known loss of life occurring during a single ship sinking in recorded maritime history.

Stories About Diplomats That Abused Their Power? Human is as Human does…

Diplomats have abused their power since long ago times but here we make a list of some of the most strong cases. From breaking the law and getting away with crimes to corrupt politicians abusing diplomatic immunity, this top 10 list of diplomatic corruption is upsetting!

Mile-High Smoke
In 2010, Mohammed al-Madani, an envoy from Qatar, was flying from Washington, D.C., to Denver, when he suddenly wanted to smoke a cigarette. Almost every single airline forbids smoking on flights, and people have to wait to fulfill their craving until landing. Al-Madadi, though, felt that rule didn’t apply to him.
Al-Madadi slipped into the bathroom, turned off the smoke alarm, and took out a pipe. Eventually, a flight attendant smelled smoke and became suspicious. When he came out of the smoke-filled bathroom with a lighter in his hand, the flight attendant confronted him.
Al-Madadi, possibly offended that a mere peasant addressed him, gave a blank stare before responding that he been trying to light his shoes on fire as a sarcastic reference to Richard Reid’s post shot attempt. Unfazed, the flight attendant asked al-Madani for his lighter, which he, of course, refused to hand over.
There happened to be U.S. Marshals on the flight. When they heard about what was happening, they grabbed him, put him in his seat and, alerted the pilot of the situation. The pilot then sent out a status report, which prompted fighter jets to be sent out to the plane and actually alerting President Obama about a scenario.
Marshals detained Al-Madadi upon landing, which is when they found out that he was on his way to meet with someone who was implicated. At this point, al-Madadi invoked diplomatic immunity and he returned to Qatar a free man.

Phone Thief
The North American’s Leadership Summit is an annual event between the U.S., Canada, and Mexico with the sole purpose of strengthening the bonds between the three nations. But that’s not what happened at the summit.
At the meetings, participants left their phones on a table in a high-security room outside the conference rooms, including a number of White House staffers. When they returned later, the phones were missing. Panic ensued.
Someone thought to check the security cameras, which showed Mexican press attache Rafael Quintero Curiel entering the high-security room and taking the phones. The Secret Service sent teams of agents to the airport, where the Mexican delegation waited for their flight back home. When the teams confronted Curial, he claimed he had no idea what they were talking about.
They then showed him the footage and he changed his story. The whole thing was an accident. He only found the phones, thought they were lost and decided to take them. Never mind that leaving these phones in a security room was a well-known practice.
At this point, Curiel invoked diplomatic immunity. The agents’ only choice was to allow him to leave but they got the phones back first. In the end, the Mexican government fired Curiel but that was it. Not a good move for his career.

Kidnapper
A diplomatic bag is, by law, any item identified as such and capable of holding items used by diplomats or representatives of foreign nations. It can be a bag, box, or satchel. Law enforcement cannot take a diplomatic bag or search it. Everything within it is untouchable.
As you might expect, some countries have gotten creative about breaking the law while using these bags. In 1984, Umaru Dikko, a former minister of Nigeria, moved to England after causing trouble by speaking out against his government and criticizing them at every turn. He also enjoyed lashing out at Israel. This led to Nigeria and Israel teaming up for a scheme worthy of Hollywood.
After successfully kidnapping and drugging Dikko, the joint Nigerian-Israeli squad took him to the airport. The next problem was how to get him on a plane? They placed Dikko in a wooden crate and tagged it as a diplomatic bag. However, someone forgot to fill out the proper paperwork for diplomatic baggage. When Dikko came around and started moving in his wooden prison, the officials decided to look inside, despite the tag. Customs got Dikko out, and the kidnappers were arrested.